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Effect of oat consumption on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Huihui Xi
    Footnotes
    1 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    2 Researcher; The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Wei Zhou
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    2 Researcher; The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    3 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Yirou Niu
    Footnotes
    3 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    4 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Ruiting Zhu
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    4 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    5 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Saikun Wang
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    5 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    6 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Yingze Guo
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    6 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    7 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    Wenqing Liu
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    7 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
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  • Author Footnotes
    8 Student; Medical College, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin, China, 132013
    Xuance Xiong
    Footnotes
    8 Student; Medical College, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin, China, 132013
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  • Lirong Guo
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Lirong Guo, Professor; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021;
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    2 Researcher; The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    3 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    4 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    5 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    6 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    7 Student; School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130021
    8 Student; Medical College, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin, China, 132013
Published:November 23, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2022.11.010
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      Abstract

      Background

      Current clinical trials have shown controversial results regarding the effects of oat consumption on blood pressure (BP) in adults.

      Objective

      The meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the effects of oat consumption on BP in adults.

      Methods

      Electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched until December 13, 2021 for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs that published in English and explored the effects of oat consumption on BP in adults under matched total energy intake were included. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was performed. The pooled effect size was expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). I2 statistics were used to quantify heterogeneity. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool (RoB 2.0).

      Results

      21 RCTs involving 1569 participants were included. The pooled results indicated that consuming oats significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) [MD = -2.82 mmHg; (95% CI -4.72, -0.93); P = 0.004]. Subgroup analyses indicated that oat consumption significantly reduced SBP in hypertensive participants, or when compared to control group participants who consumed refined grains. No significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) after oat consumption was observed [MD = -1.16 mmHg; (95% CI -2.37, 0.04); P = 0.060]. However, the sensitivity analysis of DBP, removal of individual studies or "leave one out meta-analysis", showed a significant reduction in DBP, suggesting the pooled result in the main analysis was not robust. Subgroup analyses showed that oat consumption did significantly reduce DBP in participants with baseline BP in the prehypertensive range. Both SBP and DBP were significantly reduced when the dose of oat consumption was ≥ 5 g/d b-glucan, or the oat consumption duration was ≥ 8 weeks.

      Conclusions

      Oat consumption is effective in reducing SBP levels, particularly in individuals whose baseline BP are in the hypertensive range, or when compared to control group participants consuming refined grains at matched total energy intake.

      Keywords

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