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Changes in Adults’ Eating Behaviors During the Initial Months of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Narrative Review

Published:September 05, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2022.08.132

      Abstract

      Factors such as regulations and health concerns shifted daily habits, including eating behaviors, during the early months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This comprehensive narrative review synthesizes research on eating behavior changes during the early months of the pandemic (February to June 2020), including changes in amount, rate, and timing of food consumption, types and healthfulness of foods consumed, the occurrence of other specified eating behaviors (eg, restrained eating or binging), and reasons for eating (eg, stress or cravings), among adults. A literature search using three EBSCOhost databases and Google Scholar was conducted to identify relevant articles made available in 2020. A total of 71 articles representing 250,715 individuals from more than 30 countries were reviewed. Findings show eating behaviors changed little during the early COVID-19 pandemic for most participants. Among those whose eating behaviors changed, increases in both intake and frequency of eating meals and snacks were more common than decreases. Findings on timing of eating and healthfulness of food consumed showed mixed results. However, when changes occurred in the type of food consumed, increases were more common for snacks, homemade pastries, white bread/pasta, legumes, and fruits/vegetables; decreases were more common for meats, seafood/fish, frozen foods, fast food, dark breads/grains, and dark leafy green vegetables. During the pandemic, binging, uncontrolled eating, and overeating increased, meal skipping decreased, and restrictive eating had mixed findings. Changes in factors such as emotions and mood (eg, depression), cravings, and environmental factors (eg, food insecurity) were related to changes in eating behaviors. Findings can inform clinical practitioners in efforts to mitigate disruptions to normal, healthy eating patterns among adults both in and outside of global health catastrophes.

      Keywords

      Research Question: Did adults’ amount, frequency, and timing of eating, types and healthfulness of foods consumed, occurrence of specified eating behaviors (eg, binging), and reasons for eating change during the early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic?
      Key Findings: Many eating behaviors remained stable. When changes occurred, eating more likely increased in amount/frequency. Changes in when and how healthfully individuals ate showed mixed results. Consumption of some foods decreased (eg, meat); others increased (eg, fruits). Binging, out-of-control eating, and overeating increased, meal skipping decreased, and restrictive eating had mixed results. Dietary changes were related to changes in mood and environment.
      The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused an unprecedented upheaval of daily routines for individuals around the globe. Government efforts to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 have encompassed an array of responses, including mass quarantines, stay-at-home restrictions, closures of schools and businesses, and shutdowns of public transportation.
      Like many other health behaviors, eating is heavily dependent on habit
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      Healthy through habit: Interventions for initiating & maintaining health behavior change.
      and, as such, has been significantly disrupted by COVID-19 and the restrictions used to quell outbreaks.
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      COVID-19 worries and behavior changes in older and younger men and women.
      For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, 51% of individuals in the United States made the transition to working from home, thereby increasing their proximity to a primary food environment for longer periods throughout the day.
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      In addition, unemployment in the United States rose from 3.5% to 14.7% during the early phase of the pandemic (between February and April 2020),
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      Unemployment rates during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      which for some individuals led to both a greater time spent at home and decreased purchasing power for balanced diets.
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      Examining food purchase behavior and food values during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      ,
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      Short-term impacts of COVID-19 public health regulation on consumer food purchases: a case study from a grocery store in Montana.
      However, for some individuals living in low-income households, the addition of unemployment benefits and federal supplements exceeded their prior wages.
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      The closure of restaurants shifted meal sources, often leading to an increase in cooking behaviors, whereas the closure of schools produced issues of food access and insecurity for communities facing economic hardship and marginalization.
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      COVID-19, school closures, and child poverty: a social crisis in the making.
      Moreover, social isolation efforts and fears around virus exposure limited access to supermarkets and other food retailers.
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      The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food priorities. Results from a preliminary study using social media and an online survey with Spanish consumers.
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      Food access in crisis: Food security and COVID-19.
      Whereas some individuals utilized online ordering, curbside pickups, and food/grocery delivery services to curtail these impacts, these services are not locationally or financially accessible to many individuals around the globe.
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      • Lusk J.L.
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      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      ,
      • Li J.
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      • Coca-Stefaniak J.A.
      Changing grocery shopping behaviours among Chinese consumers at the outset of the COVID-19 outbreak.
      Stockpiling behaviors and breakdowns in the food supply chain also had an influence on peoples’ eating behaviors during the pandemic.
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      ,
      • Hobbs J.E.
      Food supply chains during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      For those who could afford to stockpile food during the pandemic, stockpiling increased their access to the food around them and influenced the types of food they purchased; for those who could not afford to stockpile food during the pandemic, others’ stockpiling limited the amount of food available to them.
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      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      ,
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      • Allahyari M.S.
      • Berjan S.
      • Fotina O.
      Food purchase and eating behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey of Russian adults.
      Breakdowns in the supply chain also contributed to limitations in the food available during the pandemic.
      • Hobbs J.E.
      Food supply chains during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Beyond the regulatory, geographic, and financial obstacles influencing eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have faced psychological and social stressors that can affect their relationship with food and the food environment.
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      • Webster R.K.
      • Smith L.E.
      • et al.
      The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence.
      A large body of literature shows the influence of emotion, stress, and mood states—both positive and negative—on food selection and eating behaviors.
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      • Nicholls W.
      • Fullerton C.
      A systematic review of the association between emotions and eating behaviour in normal and overweight adult populations.
      • Hill D.
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      • Clancy F.
      • et al.
      Stress and eating behaviours in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      • Paans N.P.G.
      • Gibson-Smith D.
      • Bot M.
      Depression and eating styles are independently associated with dietary intake.
      Depression, stress, and boredom, among other possible reactions to pandemic-induced lifestyle changes, are related to increases in food intake and frequency of eating as well as increases in consuming higher energy foods such as sweets, snacks, and fast food.
      • Cherikh F.
      • Frey S.
      • Bel C.
      • Attanasi G.
      • Alifano M.
      • Iannelli A.
      Behavioral food addiction during lockdown: Time for awareness, time to prepare the aftermath.
      However, it is unclear how eating behaviors have changed around the globe during the COVID-19 pandemic. For instance, whereas many factors seem to indicate a trend toward less healthful eating behaviors, it is possible that food selection and healthfulness could improve with increased time available for cooking.
      • De Backer C.
      • Teunissen L.
      • Cuykx I.
      • et al.
      An evaluation of the COVID-19 pandemic and perceived social distancing policies in relation to planning, selecting, and preparing healthy meals: an observational study in 38 countries worldwide.
      Moreover, evidence suggests that the best time to change habits is when other habits are changing as well,
      • Noar S.M.
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      Applying health behavior theory to multiple behavior change: considerations and approaches.
      ,
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      • McFadden H.G.
      • et al.
      Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: A randomized controlled trial using mobile technology.
      making the abrupt changes generated by stay-at-home orders fertile ground for eating behavior change among other health behavior changes.
      Comparisons across similar public health crises and national disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes show that eating behaviors are vulnerable to change during times of regional or international distress.
      • Carmassi C.
      • Antonio Bertelloni C.
      • et al.
      Impact of DSM-5 PTSD and gender on impaired eating behaviors in 512 Italian earthquake survivors.
      ,
      • Kuijer R.G.
      • Boyce J.A.
      Emotional eating and its effect on eating behaviour after a natural disaster.
      Widespread crises disrupt food systems and the economies that allow individuals to purchase food, often leading to reduced food security and increased malnutrition.
      • Fan S.
      • Si W.
      • Zhang Y.
      How to prevent a global food and nutrition security crisis under COVID-19?.
      Moreover, the heightened stress is related to decreased fruit and vegetable intake and, among emotional eaters, overeating behaviors.
      • Kuijer R.G.
      • Boyce J.A.
      Emotional eating and its effect on eating behaviour after a natural disaster.
      In fact, watching news related to disasters such as earthquakes
      • Rodgers R.F.
      • Franko D.L.
      • Brunet A.
      • Herbert C.F.
      • Bui E.
      Disordered eating following exposure to television and Internet coverage of the March 2011 Japan earthquake.
      or even reading narratives about devastating hurricanes
      • Snider S.E.
      • Mellis A.M.
      • Poe L.M.
      • Kocher M.A.
      • Turner J.K.
      • Bickel W.K.
      Reinforcer pathology: narrative of hurricane-associated loss increases delay discounting, demand, and consumption of highly palatable snacks in the obese.
      is associated with changes in eating behavior. Given the ubiquitous influences of the COVID-19 pandemic and the concomitant alterations of stress and other mood states, it is plausible that eating behaviors would change as a result.
      Eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic are a critical area of study given the clinical relevance of over- and undernutrition, both of which could result from dietary changes brought about by the pandemic. Researchers suggest that nutrition can be a key factor in COVID-19 immunity
      • Butler M.J.
      • Barrientos R.M.
      The impact of nutrition on COVID-19 susceptibility and long-term consequences.
      ,
      • Calder P.C.
      Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19.
      and predict that the pandemic will continue to cause a nutrition crisis given factors like job loss and the closing of public food supports.
      • Headey D.D.
      • Ruel M.T.
      The COVID-19 nutrition crisis: what to expect and how to protect.
      Although several minireviews have communicated breaking findings throughout the early COVID-19 pandemic time points, as of this writing no review comprehensively captured the dietary influence of COVID-19 on a global scale.
      • Arora T.
      • Grey I.
      Health behaviour changes during COVID-19 and the potential consequences: a mini-review.
      • Rodriguez da Silva F.
      • Junior A.H.L.
      • Brant V.M.
      • Lôbo I.
      • Lancha L.
      • Silva A.
      • Túlio de Mello M.
      The effects of COVID-19 quarantine on eating and sleeping behaviors.
      • Mattioli A.V.
      • Sciomer S.
      • Cocchi C.
      • Maffei S.
      • Gallina S.
      Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
      • Mehmet N.
      • Özlem A.
      • Mehmet N.
      Eating habits changes during covid-19 pandemic lockdown.
      • Zupo R.
      • Castellana F.
      • Sardone R.
      • Sila A.
      • Giagulli V.
      • Triggiani V.A.
      • et al.
      Preliminary trajectories in dietary behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: a public health call to action to face obesity.
      Moreover, recent reviews assessing eating behaviors are narrower in scope, with specific focus areas such as weight changes
      • Bakaloudi D.R.
      • Barazzoni R.
      • Bischoff S.C.
      • Breda J.
      • Wickramasinghe K.
      • Chourdakis M.
      Impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown on body weight: a combined systematic review and a meta-analysis.
      and feeding children.
      • Campbell H.
      • Wood A.C.
      Challenges in feeding children posed by the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of changes in dietary intake combined with a dietitian’s perspective.
      This narrative review offers a summary of key research question findings regarding changes in eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, challenges to empirically studying eating during a pandemic, areas for future examination, and clinical implications are discussed.
      Specifically, this review aims to address how the following eating behaviors compared during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic relative to before the pandemic began: the amount, frequency, and timing of food consumption; the types and healthfulness of foods eaten; the occurrence of specified eating behaviors (eg, restrained eating or binging); and reasons for eating (eg, emotions, cravings, and environmental factors).
      The scope of this review includes international research published in English and made available in the year 2020 with samples that generalize to adults who have not been diagnosed with eating disorders. The aim is to characterize early-pandemic dietary changes for populations of individuals without pathological eating behaviors around the globe.

      Methods

      An initial literature review assessing extant systematic, narrative, and scoping reviews of changes to eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted in October 2020 using multiple EBSCOhost databases, including Academic Search Premier, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and APA PsycInfo in addition to the Google Scholar database. Search terms included eat∗, COVID-19, coronavirus, pandemic and review. Five reviews were identified.
      • Arora T.
      • Grey I.
      Health behaviour changes during COVID-19 and the potential consequences: a mini-review.
      • Rodriguez da Silva F.
      • Junior A.H.L.
      • Brant V.M.
      • Lôbo I.
      • Lancha L.
      • Silva A.
      • Túlio de Mello M.
      The effects of COVID-19 quarantine on eating and sleeping behaviors.
      • Mattioli A.V.
      • Sciomer S.
      • Cocchi C.
      • Maffei S.
      • Gallina S.
      Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
      • Mehmet N.
      • Özlem A.
      • Mehmet N.
      Eating habits changes during covid-19 pandemic lockdown.
      • Zupo R.
      • Castellana F.
      • Sardone R.
      • Sila A.
      • Giagulli V.
      • Triggiani V.A.
      • et al.
      Preliminary trajectories in dietary behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: a public health call to action to face obesity.
      Some of these reviews assessed eating behaviors in addition to other health behaviors such as sleep
      • Arora T.
      • Grey I.
      Health behaviour changes during COVID-19 and the potential consequences: a mini-review.
      ,
      • Rodriguez da Silva F.
      • Junior A.H.L.
      • Brant V.M.
      • Lôbo I.
      • Lancha L.
      • Silva A.
      • Túlio de Mello M.
      The effects of COVID-19 quarantine on eating and sleeping behaviors.
      and physical activity.
      • Arora T.
      • Grey I.
      Health behaviour changes during COVID-19 and the potential consequences: a mini-review.
      ,
      • Mattioli A.V.
      • Sciomer S.
      • Cocchi C.
      • Maffei S.
      • Gallina S.
      Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
      Given the rapidly evolving context and continued influx of eating–behavior-related studies, the need for a more comprehensive narrative review was apparent. The present review contributes a global perspective and covers a more extensive range of eating behaviors than previous studies. To set the scope of the review, all relevant articles written in English and published or made available online during the year 2020 were screened for inclusion.
      Article identification and selection started in October 2020. Searches were performed using the same databases as the initial literature review and the search terms COVID, COVID-19, sars-cov-2, coronavirus, pandemic AND eat∗, nutri∗, food, diet∗, grocer∗. In addition, sources referenced in articles accumulated during the database search were assessed and included as appropriate. Filters were applied to limit results to articles made available in 2020, and the final search for this review was conducted on February 8, 2021.
      Article abstracts were screened to ensure relevance to eating behaviors during the early COVID-19 pandemic, especially during or following a period of lockdown and social distancing. The circumstances related to lockdowns varied globally, including the timeframe and extent of closure, so this was defined in each article relative to the geographic location and study population. A total of 138 relevant articles were gathered and assessed in their entirety for inclusion.
      A final sample of 71 articles with 250,715 participants remained after 67 articles were eliminated. Studies were excluded if they did not measure or explicitly evaluate change in eating behaviors; focused on child and adolescent populations exclusively; focused on elderly populations exclusively; focused on individuals with eating disorders or other health conditions exclusively; were archival, not cross-sectional, or not longitudinal; and had not yet published preprints of their full articles. Please see Figure 1 for a detailed visual summary of the articles included and excluded from the present study.
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1Flow diagram of the articles included and excluded from the present review of changes in adults’ eating behaviors during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

      Results

      The 71 studies with 250,715 participants included in the final review consist of findings from 32 countries with the United States (n = 11), the United Kingdom (n = 8), Italy (n = 5), Spain (n = 5), and Turkey (n = 5) being the most studied. There were potentially more than 32 countries represented in these articles as some samples were listed as coming from locations such as “Europe,” “Northern Africa,” or simply “Other.” Most studies were cross-sectional (66 studies; 93%), but five (7%) featured longitudinal designs. Nearly all studies (69; 97%; two were unspecified) reported on data collected between March 2020 and June 2020. Table 1 categorizes articles by study outcomes and provides a summary of study characteristics.
      Table 1Study characteristics and outcome variables for 71 studies reporting changes in eating behaviors during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic
      ReferenceStudy characteristicsChange outcome variables
      Location, dates, designSample characteristics
      Some studies used terminology regarding sex (female, male) to describe gender. Similarly, some studies used terminology related to gender (women, men) to describe sex. This terminology was not edited in this review; gender and sex statistics are presented as they are described in the original article.
      Amount of foodFrequency of eatingTiming of eatingTypes of food eatenHealthy eatingSpecified eating behaviorsReasons for eating
      Adams and colleagues, 2020
      • Adams E.L.
      • Caccavale L.J.
      • Smith D.
      • Bean M.K.
      Food insecurity, the home food environment, and parent feeding practices in the era of covid-19.
      United States

      April 30-May 23, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 584 parents

      Sex of parents: 94.5% female, 5.5% male

      Sex of children: 52.1% female, 47.9% male

      Mean age of parents: 40.4 ± 7.2 y

      Race and ethnicity of parents: 82.7% Caucasian/White, 6% African American, 4.3% Asian, 2.9% American/Indian, 6.5% other, 14.7% Hispanic/Latino

      Race and ethnicity of children: 82.4% Caucasian/White, 10.1% African American, 5.0% Asian, 3.3% American/Indian, 9.1% other, 19.0% Hispanic/Latino
      XX
      Alhusseini and Alqahtani, 2020
      • Alhusseini N.
      • Alqahtani A.
      COVID-19 pandemics impact on eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      Riyadh Saudi Arabia

      May 5- May 15, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,706

      Sex: 54.2% female, 45.8% male

      Age: 70.2% 18-35 years

      Race and Ethnicity: 92.2% Saudi, 7.8% non-Saudi
      XX
      Aljohani, 2020
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      Saudi Arabia, Al Madinah city

      April-June 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 782

      Gender: 52.2% female, 47.8% male

      Age: 41.9% 31-40 y
      XX
      Almandoz and colleagues, 2020
      • Almandoz J.P.
      • Xie L.
      • Schellinger J.N.
      • et al.
      Impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on weight-related behaviours among patients with obesity.
      United States, Texas

      April 15- May 31, 2020

      Retrospective cross-sectional survey
      N = 123 patients with obesity

      Sex: 87% female, 13% male

      Mean age: 51.2 ± 13 y

      Race and ethnicity: 49.2% non-Hispanic White, 28.7% non-Hispanic Black, 16.4% Hispanic, 5.7% “other” (multiracial or Asian)
      XXX
      Ammar and colleagues, 2020
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      40% North Africa, 36% western Asia, 21% Europe, 3% Other

      April 1-6, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,047

      Gender: 53.8% female, 46.2% male

      Age: 55.1% 18-35 y
      XXX
      Antunes and colleagues, 2020
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      Portugal

      April 1-15, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,404

      Sex: 69.6% female, 30.3% male, 0.1% preferred not to specify

      Mean age: 36.4 ± 11.7 y
      XX
      Bakhsh and colleagues, 2021
      • Bakhsh M.A.
      • Khawandanah J.
      • Naaman R.K.
      • Alashmali S.
      The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on dietary habits and physical activity in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
      References with publication dates of 2021 were made available in the year 2020.
      Saudi Arabia

      2 weeks between June and early July 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,255

      Sex: 64% female, 36% male

      Age: 24% 30-39 y

      Race and Ethnicity: 91% Saudi, 9% non-Saudi
      XX
      Bann and colleagues, 2020
      • Bann D.
      • Aase V.
      • Maddock J.
      • et al.
      Changes in the behavioural determinants of health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: gender, socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in 5 British cohort studies.
      United Kingdom

      May 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 13,283

      Sex: 49.8% male, 50.2% female

      Age: 19-74 y
      X
      Ben Hassen and colleagues, 2020
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      Qatar

      May 24- June 14, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 577

      Gender: 61.39% female, 38.61% male

      Mean age: 35.7 y
      XXX
      Bin Zarah and colleagues, 2020
      • Bin Zarah A.
      • Enriquez-Marulanda J.
      • Andrade J.M.
      Relationship between dietary habits, food attitudes and food security status among adults living within the United States three months post-mandated quarantine: a cross-sectional study.
      United States

      April-June 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 3,133

      Sex: 79.4% female, 19.8% male, 0.8% other

      Age: 30.5% 30-49 y

      Race and ethnicity: 5.1% African American, 2.9% Asian, 84.5% White, 2.8% Hispanic, 0.4% Native American, 4.3% other
      X
      Błaszczyk-Bębenek and colleagues, 2020
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      Poland

      April 29-May 19, 2020

      Retrospective cross-sectional survey
      N = 312

      Gender: 64.1% female, 35.9% male

      Mean age: 41.1 ± 13.1 y
      XXX
      Buckland and colleagues, 2021
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      Predominantly (82.5%) from United Kingdom

      May 15-June 27, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 588

      Sex: 69% female, 30% male, 1% nonconforming

      Mean age: 33.4 ± 12.6 y

      Race and ethnicity: 86% White, 7% Asian or Asian British, 3% mixed or multiple ethnic groups, 1% Black, African, Caribbean, or Black British, 1% prefer not to say, and 2% other
      XXX
      Cancello and colleagues, 2020
      • Cancello R.
      • Soranna D.
      • Zambra G.
      • Zambon A.
      • Invitti C.
      Determinants of the lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic in the residents of northern Italy.
      Northern Italy

      April 15-May 4, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 490

      Sex: 83.67% female, 16.33% male

      Age: 65.1% aged 31-60 y
      XX
      Carroll and colleagues, 2020
      • Carroll N.
      • Sadowski A.
      • Laila A.
      • Hruska V.
      • Nixon M.
      • Ma David
      • et al.
      The impact of COVID-19 on health behavior, stress, financial and food security among middle to high income Canadian families with young children.
      Canada

      April 20-May 15, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      Mothers:

      N = 235

      Mean age: 37.5 y

      Race and ethnicity: 86.8% Caucasian, 0.9% African American, 3.0% Latin American, 4.7% Asian, 3.0% South/West Asian, 1.3% Other

      Fathers:

      N = 126

      Mean age: 39.4 y

      Race and ethnicity: 88.1% Caucasian, 0.0% African American, 2.4% Latin American, 4.0% Asian, 3.2% South/West Asian, 0.8% Other

      Children:

      N = 310

      Mean age: 5.7 y
      XXX
      Celik and Dane, 2020
      • Celik B.
      • Dane S.
      The effects of COVID-19 pandemic outbreak on food consumption preferences and their causes.
      Nigeria, Turkey, United States, Europe

      April 25-May 5, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 411

      Gender: 16.3% women, 73.7% men

      Age: 20-65 y
      X
      Cheikh Ismail and colleagues, 2020
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      United Arab Emirates

      April-May 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,012

      Gender: 75.9% female, 24.1% male

      Age: 29.1% 26-35 y
      XXXX
      Cheikh Ismail and colleagues, 2021
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Assessment of eating habits and lifestyle during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa region: a cross-sectional study.
      Greater Middle East region (and North Africa),

      April 15-April 29, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N= 2,970

      Sex: 71.6% female, 28.4% male

      Age: 29.6% aged 18-25 y
      XXXX
      Chenarides and colleagues, 2021
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      United States: Detroit, MI, and Phoenix, AZ

      May 13-30, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 861

      Gender: 53% female, 46% male, 1% nonbinary

      Mean age: 53 y

      Race and ethnicity: 80.3% White, 11.3% Black
      XX
      Di Renzo, Gualtieri, Cinelli and colleagues, 2020
      • Di Renzo L.D.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Psychological aspects and eating habits during covid-19 home confinement: results of ehlc-covid-19 Italian online survey.
      Italy

      April 24-May 18, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 602

      Gender: 79.7% female

      Mean age: 38.2 y
      X
      Di Renzo, Gualtieri, Pivari, and colleagues, 2020
      • Di Renzo L.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Pivari F.
      • Soldati L.
      • Attina A.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey.
      Italy

      April 5-24, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 3,533

      Gender: 76.1% female, 23.9% male

      Mean age: 40.0 ± 13.5 y
      XXXX
      Do and colleagues, 2020
      • Do B.N.
      • Tran T.V.
      • Phan D.T.
      • et al.
      Health literacy, ehealth literacy, adherence to infection prevention and control procedures, lifestyle changes, and suspected COVID-19 symptoms among health care workers during lockdown: online survey.
      Vietnam

      April 6-19, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 5,209 health care workers

      Gender: 67.1% women, 32.9% men

      Age: 82.6% aged 21-40 y
      X
      Duong and colleagues, 2020
      • Duong T.V.
      • Pham K.M.
      • Do B.N.
      • et al.
      Digital healthy diet literacy and self-perceived eating behavior change during COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduate nursing and medical students: a rapid online survey.
      Vietnam

      April 7-May 31, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 7,616 nursing and medical students

      Gender: 62.5% women, 37.5% men

      Mean age: 21.4 ± 1.8 y
      X
      Elmacloǧlu and colleagues, 2021
      • Elmacloǧlu F.
      • Emiroǧlu E.
      • Ülker M.T.
      • Özyllmaz Klrcali B.
      • Oruç S.
      Evaluation of nutritional behaviour related to COVID-19.
      Turkey

      May 6-26, 2020

      Longitudinal
      N = 1,036

      Gender: 79.8% female, 20.2% male

      Mean age: 33.1 y
      XX
      Flanagan and colleagues, 2021
      • Flanagan E.W.
      • Beyl R.A.
      • Fearnbach S.N.
      • Altazan A.D.
      • Martin C.K.
      • Redman L.M.
      The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults.
      United States (n = 4,890), United Kingdom (n = 1,839), Australia (n = 497), Canada (n = 154), Other (n = 373)

      April 3-May 3, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 7,753

      Sex: 80% female, 20% male

      Mean age: 51.2 ± 0.2 y

      Race and ethnicity: 89.6% White
      XXX
      Flaudias and colleagues, 2020
      • Flaudias V.
      • Iceta S.
      • Zerhouni O.
      • et al.
      COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and problematic eating behaviors in a student population.
      France

      March 26- 27, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 5,738 students

      Sex: 74.6% female, 25.4% male

      Mean age: 21.2 y
      XX
      Gallo and colleagues, 2020
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      Brisbane, Australia

      May 12-26, 2020

      Longitudinal
      2020 Females:
      Gallo and colleagues64 included three cohorts of Australian university undergraduate students recruited over three different years (2018, 2019, 2020) and compared eating behaviors across men and women separately.


      N = 84

      Age range: 19-26 y

      Race and ethnicity: 32.1% Asian, 9.5% Asian subcontinental, 52.4% Caucasian, 2.4% Multi, 3.6% Other/not disclosed

      2020 Males:

      N = 66

      Age range: 19-27 y

      Race and ethnicity: 37.9% Asian, 9.1% Asian subcontinental, 43.9% Caucasian, 6.1% Multi, 3.0% Other/not disclosed

      2019 Females:

      N = 108

      Age range: 19-23 y

      Race and ethnicity: 25.9% Asian, 9.3% Asian subcontinental, 55.6% Caucasian, 5.6% Multi, 3.7% Other/not disclosed

      2019 Male:

      N=77

      Age range: 19-25 y

      Race and ethnicity: 23.4% Asian, 9.1% Asian subcontinental, 54.5% Caucasian, 1.3% Multi, 11.7% Other/not disclosed

      2018 females:

      N=103

      Age range: 19-26 y

      Race and ethnicity: 28.2% Asian, 2.9% Asian subcontinental, 63.1% Caucasian, 2.9% Multi, 2.9% Other/not disclosed

      2018 Males:

      N = 71

      Age range: 19-25 y

      Race and ethnicity: 32.4% Asian, 5.6% Asian subcontinental, 54.9% Caucasian, 2.8% Multi, 4.2% other/not disclosed
      XXX
      Giacalone and colleagues, 2020
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      Denmark

      April 24-May 5, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,462

      Gender: 71.1% women, 28.7% men, 0.2% other

      Age: 37.2% 36-50 y
      XXX
      Górnick and colleagues, 2020
      • Górnick M.
      • Ewa Drywien M.
      • Zielinksa M.
      • Hamulka J.
      Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among Polish adults: PLifeCOVID-19 Study.
      Poland

      April 30-May 23, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,381

      Sex: 89.8% female, 10.2% male

      Age: 44.8% 30-39 y
      XXX
      Haddad and colleagues, 2020
      • Haddad C.
      • Zakhour M.
      • Bou Kheir M.
      • Haddad R.
      • Al Hachach M.
      • Sacre H.
      • et al.
      Association between eating behavior and quarantine/confinement stressors during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.
      Lebanon

      April 3-18, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 407 

      Gender: 51.3% female, 48.7% male

      Mean age: 30.6 ± 10.1 y
      XX
      Herle and colleagues, 2021
      • Herle M.
      • Smith A.
      • Bub F.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Fancourt D.
      Trajectories of eating behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of 22,374 adults in the UK.
      United Kingdom

      March 28- May 29, 2020

      Longitudinal
      N = 22,374

      Gender: 76% female, 24% male

      Age: 32% aged 46-59 y

      Race and ethnicity: 5% Black, Asian, and minority ethnicity, reference: White ethnicity
      X
      Huber and colleagues, 2021
      • Huber B.C.
      • Steffen J.
      • Schlichtiger J.
      • Brunner S.
      Altered nutrition behavior during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in young adults.
      German federal state Bavaria

      2 wk during March and April 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,957 students

      Sex: 71.5% female, 28.5% male

      Mean age: 23.3 ± 4.0 y
      XX
      Husain and Ashkanani, 2020
      • Husain W.
      • Ashkanani F.
      Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study.
      Kuwait

      March 30- April 15, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 415

      Gender: 68.7% female, 31.3% male

      Mean age: 38.5 ± 12.7 y
      XXXX
      Ingram and colleagues, 2020
      • Ingram J.
      • Maciejewski G.
      • Hand C.J.
      Changes in diet, sleep, and physical activity are associated with differences in negative mood during COVID-19 lockdown.
      Scotland

      5 wk during COVID-19 restrictions in Scotland

      Cross-sectional survey
      Ingram and colleagues71 collected data at three time points described as Weeks 1, 3, and 5. However language related to healthy eating refers to levels before and during lockdown. It is assumed the data used are from Week 1 and thus these data are being treated as cross-sectional in nature.
      N = 399

      Gender-sex: 56.4% female, 41.9% male, 1% nonbinary, 0.8% trans

      Mean age: 32.4 ± 11.4 y
      X
      Jeżewska-Zychowicz and colleagues, 2020
      • Jeżewska-Zychowicz M.
      • Plichta M.
      • Królak M.
      Consumers’ fears regarding food availability and purchasing behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: the importance of trust and perceived stress.
      Poland

      March 19-24, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,033

      Gender: 50.2% female, 49.8% male

      Mean age: 39.9 ± 13.1 y
      X
      Kansiime and colleagues, 2021
      • Kansiime M.K.
      • Tambo J.A.
      • Mugambi I.
      • Bundi M.
      • Kara A.
      • Owuor C.
      COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: findings from a rapid assessment.
      Kenya and Uganda

      April 18-27, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      Kenya:

      N = 313

      Gender: 61% female

      Age: 63% youth (18-35 y), 37% “adult”

      Uganda:

      N = 129

      Gender: 63% female

      Age: 38% youth (18-35 y), 62% “adult”
      XXXXX
      Kaya and colleagues, 2021
      • Kaya S.
      • Uzdil Z.
      • Cakiroǧlu F.P.
      Evaluation of the effects of fear and anxiety on nutrition during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey.
      Turkey

      April 15-30, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,012

      Gender: 81.7% female, 18.3% male

      Mean age: 28.3 ± 8.7 y
      XX
      Khubchandani and colleagues, 2020
      • Khubchandani J.
      • Kandiah J.
      • Saiki D.
      The covid-19 pandemic, stress, and eating practices in the United States.
      United States

      Last week of April 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 838

      Sex: 52% female, 48% male

      Age: 34.4 ± 0.4 y

      Race: 63% White, 23% Asian, 7% Black, 5% Multiracial, 3% Other

      Ethnicity: 22% Hispanic, 78% Non-Hispanic
      XXX
      Kriaucioniene and colleagues, 2020
      • Kriaucioniene V.
      • Bagdonaviciene L.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      • Petkeviciene J.
      Associations between changes in health behaviours and body weight during the covid-19 quarantine in Lithuania: the Lithuanian COVIdiet study.
      Lithuania

      April 14-28, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,447

      Sex: 87.8% female, 12.2% male

      Age: 40.1% 18-35 y
      XX
      Lamarche and colleagues, 2021
      • Lamarche B.
      • Brassard D.
      • Lapointe A.
      • et al.
      Changes in diet quality and food security among adults during the COVID-19-related early lockdown: results from NutriQuébec.
      Québec, Canada,

      April 15-May 12, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 853

      Sex: 87.2% female, 12.8% male

      Age: 52.5% 50-69 y
      X
      López-Bueno and colleagues, 2020
      • López-Bueno R.
      • Calatayud J.
      • Casaña J.
      • et al.
      COVID-19 confinement and health risk behaviors in Spain.
      Spain

      March 22- April 5, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,741

      Gender: 51.8% women, 48.2% men

      Mean age: 34.2 ± 13.0 y
      X
      López-Moreno and colleagues, 2020
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      Spain

      May 28-June 21, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 675

      Gender: 69.9% women, 30.1% men

      Mean age: 39.1 ± 12.9 y
      XX
      Malta and colleagues, 2020
      • Malta D.C.
      • Szwarcwald C.L.
      • Barros M.B.
      • et al.
      The COVD-19 pandemic and changes in adult Brazilian lifestyles: a cross-sectional study.
      Brazil

      April 24-May 24, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 45,161

      Sex: 53.6% female, 46.4% male

      Age: 24.7% aged 18-29 y
      X
      Marty and colleagues, 2021
      • Marty L.
      • de Lauzon-Guillain B.
      • Labesse M.
      • Nicklaus S.
      Food choice motives and the nutritional quality of diet during the COVID-19 lockdown in France.
      France

      April 30-May 1, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 938

      Gender: 78.5% female, 21.5% male

      Mean age: 38.7 ± 11.6 y
      XXX
      Matsungo and Chopera, 2020
      • Matsungo T.M.
      • Chopera P.
      Effect of the COVID-19-induced lockdown on nutrition, health and lifestyle patterns among adults in Zimbabwe.
      Zimbabwe

      May 11-25, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 507

      Gender: 63.0% female, 37.0% male

      Age: 48.1% aged 31-40 y
      X
      Murphy and colleagues, 2021
      • Murphy B.
      • Benson T.
      • McCloa A.Mooney E.
      • Elliott C.
      • Dean M.
      • Lavelle F.
      Changes in consumers’ food practices during the COVID-19 lockdown, implications for diet quality and the food system: a cross-continental comparison.
      Island of Ireland, Great Britain, United States, and New Zealand

      May-June 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      Island of Ireland: 

      N = 538

      Gender: 87.5% female, 12.5% male

      Mean age: 35.9 ± 12.5 y

      Great Britain:

      N = 961

      Gender: 51.0% female, 48.7% male, 0.3% other

      Mean age: 50.7 ± 15.3 y

      United States:

      N = 381

      Gender: 53.4% female, 46.1% male, 0.5% other

      Mean age: 53.7 ± 18.4 y

      New Zealand:

      N = 480

      Gender: 51.9% female, 47.7% male, 0.4% other

      Mean age: 45.7 ± 17.2 y
      X
      Pakravan-Charvadeh and colleagues, 2021
      • Pakravan-Charvadeh M.R.
      • Mohammadi-Nasrabadi F.
      • Gholamrezai S.
      • Vatanparast H.
      • Flora C.
      • Nabavi-Pelesaraei A.
      The short-term effects of COVID-19 outbreak on dietary diversity and food security status of Iranian households (A case study in Tehran province).
      Iran, Tehran province

      March 2020

      Cross-sectional survey using both retrospective and current reporting
      N = 292 families 

      Mean age: 47.5 ± 13.5 y
      XX
      Papandreou and colleagues, 2020
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      Spain and Greece

      April 23-May 3, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,841

      Spain:

      N = 1,002

      Sex: 70.3% women

      Mean age = 46.1 ± 13.3 y

      Greece:

      N = 839

      Sex: 66.7% women

      Mean age = 42.4 ± 11.7 y
      XXXX
      Pellegrini and colleagues, 2020
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      Italy

      April 14-21, 2020

      Retrospective cross-sectional survey
      N = 150

      Gender: 77.3% female, 22.7% male

      Mean age: 47.9 y
      XXXXX
      Pham and colleagues, 2020
      • Pham K.M.
      • Pham L.V.
      • Phan D.T.
      • et al.
      Healthy dietary intake behavior potentially modifies the negative effect of COVID-19 lockdown on depression: A hospital and health center survey.
      Vietnam

      February 14-May 31, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 8,291 

      Gender: 53% women, 41% men

      Age: 43.6 ± 16.9 y
      X
      Phillipou and colleagues, 2020
      • Phillipou A.
      • Meyer D.
      • Neill E.
      • Tan E.J.
      • Toh W.
      • Van R.E.
      • Rossell S.L.
      Eating and exercise behaviors in eating disorders and the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia: initial results from the COLLATE project.
      Australia

      April 1-4, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 5,289

      Sex: 80.0% female, 17.9% male, 2.1% preferred to self-describe or did not answer

      Mean age: 40.6 y
      X
      Poelman and colleagues, 2021
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      Netherlands

      April 22-May 5, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,030

      Gender: 50.5% female, 49.5% male

      Mean age: 49.9 ± 17.0 y
      XXXXX
      Puhl and colleagues, 2020
      • Puhl R.M.
      • Lessard L.M.
      • Larson N.
      • Eisenberg M.E.
      • Neumark-Stzainer D.
      Weight stigma as a predictor of distress and maladaptive eating behaviors during covid-19: longitudinal findings from the eat study.
      United States (90% from Minnesota)

      April-June 2020

      Longitudinal
      N = 584

      Gender: 64.2% female, 34.4% male, 1.4% another gender identity

      Mean age: 24.6 ± 2.0 y

      Race and ethnicity: 30.2% White, 16.8% African American/Black, 17.1% Hispanic, 24.3% Asian American, 11.6% Other
      XX
      Radwan and colleagues, 2020
      • Radwan H.
      • Al Kitbi M.
      • Al Hilali M.
      • Abbas N.
      • Hamadeh R.
      • Saif E.R.
      • Naja F.
      Diet and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: results of a cross-sectional study.
      United Arab Emirates

      May 5-18, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,060

      Gender: 75.1% female, 24.9% male

      Age: 31.7% between 18 and 30 y, 38.4% between 31 and 40 y, and 29.9% older than 40 y
      XX
      Reyes-Olavarría and colleagues, 2020
      • Reyes-Olavarría D.
      • Latorre-Román P.Á.
      • Guzmán-Guzmán I.P.
      • et al.
      Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population.
      Chile

      8 wk: May-June, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 700

      Sex: 75.4% women, 24.6% men

      Median age: 31 y
      XX
      Robertson and colleagues, 2021
      • Robertson M.
      • Duffy F.
      • Newman E.
      • Prieto Bravo C.
      • Ates H.H.
      • Sharpe H.
      Exploring changes in body image, eating and exercise during the COVID-19 lockdown: A UK survey.
      United Kingdom

      May 11-June 26, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 264 

      Gender: 78% women

      Age: 42% 18-29 y, and 58% 30+ y

      Race and ethnicity: 92% White
      XX
      Robinson and colleagues, 2021
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      United Kingdom

      April 28-May 22, 2020

      Cross-sectional
      N = 2,002

      Gender: 61.7% female, 37.8% male, 0.5% prefer not to say or non-binary gender

      Age: 34.7 ± 12.3 y

      Race and ethnicity: 89.7% White
      XXXX
      Robinson and colleagues, 2020
      • Robinson E.
      • Gillespie S.
      • Jones A.
      Weight-related lifestyle behaviours and the COVID-19 crisis: an online survey study of UK adults during social lockdown.
      United Kingdom

      April 19-22, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 723

      Gender: 67% female

      Mean age: 30.7 ± 9.6 y

      Race and ethnicity: 80% White, 20% non-White
      X
      Rodríguez-Pérez and colleagues, 2020
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      • Molina-Montes E.
      • Verardo V.
      • et al.
      Changes in dietary behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement in the Spanish COVIDiet study.
      Spain

      March 20- April 10, 2020
      Rodríguez-Pérez and colleagues96 list a beginning date; however, an end date is not precisely stated. The original reference states “The questionnaire was open from March 20, concretely 1 week after the Spanish COVID-19 outbreak confinement started. Data from the three first weeks of confinement were collected.” The current authors have interpreted this as a 3-week long study ending on April 10, 2020.


      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 7,514

      Gender: 71% female, 29.3% male, .07% other gender

      Age: 92% 31-65 y
      X
      Rolland and colleagues, 2020
      • Rolland B.
      • Haesebaert F.
      • Zante E.
      • Benyamina A.
      • Haesebaert J.
      • Franck N.
      Global changes and factors of increase in caloric/salty food intake, screen use, and substance use during the early COVID-19 containment phase in the general population in France: survey study.
      France

      March 25- 30, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 11,391

      Gender: 52.1% female, 47.5% male, 0.4% other

      Mean age: 47.5 ± 17.3 y
      X
      Rossinot and colleagues, 2020
      • Rossinot H.
      • Fantin R.
      • Venne J.
      Behavioral changes during covid-19 confinement in France: a web-based study.
      France

      April 23-May 7, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,454

      Gender: 63.5% female, 36.0% male, 0.5% other

      Age: 27.0% 25-34 y, 29.4% 35-44 y, 28.2% 45-54 y, 15.5% 55-64 y
      XX
      Sánchez-Sánchez and colleagues, 2020
      • Sánchez-Sánchez E.
      • Ramírez-Vargas G.
      • Avellaneda-López Y.
      • Orellana-Pecino J.I.
      • García-Marín E.
      • Díaz-Jimenez J.
      Eating habits and physical activity of the Spanish population during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
      Spain

      May 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 385

      Gender: 72.8% female, 27.2% male

      Age: 38.7 ± 12.4 y
      XX
      Scarmozzino and Visioli, 2020
      • Scarmozzino F.
      • Visioli F.
      COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown modified dietary habits of almost half the population in an Italian sample.
      Italy

      April 3-15, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,929

      Sex: 67% female, 32.9% male, 0.1% not answered

      Age
      The original reporting by Scarmozzino and Visioli100 did not include an age category that contained age 20 years.
      : 63.1% aged 21-35 y, 9.6% aged 36-50 y, 11.4% aged 51-65 y, 14.4% < 20 y, 1.5% > 65 y
      XXX
      Sharma and colleagues, 2020
      • Sharma S.V.
      • Chuang R.-J.Y.E.
      • Rushing M.
      • et al.
      Social determinants of health-related needs households with children.
      United States: Houston; Dallas; Washington, DC; and southwest Florida

      April 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,048

      Sex: 97.0% female, 3% male

      Mean age: 36.7 ± 7.3 y

      Race and ethnicity: 7.1% Black or African American, 85.9% Mexican American, Latino, or Hispanic, 3.7% Non-Hispanic White, 3.4% Other
      X
      Sidor and Rzymski, 2020
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      Poland

      April 17– May 1, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 1,097

      Gender: 95.1% female, 4.9% male

      Mean age: 27.7 ± 9.0 y
      XX
      Şimsek and Şen, 2020
      • Şimsek M.
      • Şen M.
      Change in people’s eating behaviour during Covid-19.
      Turkey

      May 18-31, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 397

      Gender: 39.8% female, 60.2% male

      Age: 40.3% aged 36-50 y
      XX
      Sutaria and colleagues, 2020
      • Sutaria M.
      • Keny G.
      • Pratinidhi S.A.
      COVID-19 and its effect on nutrition.
      India

      April-July 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 422

      Sex: 56.4% female, 43.6% males

      Age: 83.9% aged 20-50 y
      X
      Wang and colleagues, 2020
      • Wang X.
      • Lei S.M.
      • Le S.
      • et al.
      Bidirectional influence of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on health behaviors and quality of life among Chinese adults.
      China

      March 23- April 26, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 2,289

      Sex: 48.6% female, 51.4% male

      Mean age: 27.5 ± 12.0 y
      XX
      Werneck and colleagues, 2020
      • Werneck A.O.
      • da Silva D.R.
      • Malta D.C.
      • et al.
      Lifestyle behaviors changes during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine among 6,881 Brazilian adults with depression and 35,143 without depression.
      Brazil

      April 24-May 24, 2020

      Retrospective cross-sectional survey
      Without depression:

      N = 35,042

      Sex: 50.8% women, 49.2% men

      Age: 48.2% aged 18-39 y

      With depression:

      N = 6,881

      Sex: 68.2% women, 31.8% men

      Age: 51.8% aged 18-39 y
      X
      Yılmaz and colleagues, 2020
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      Turkey

      April 5-6, 2020

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 866 students 

      Sex: 78.2% female, 21.8% male

      Mean age: 21.2 ± 1.4 y
      XX
      Zeigler and colleagues, 2020
      • Zeigler Z.
      • Forbes B.
      • Lopez B.
      • Pedersen G.
      • Welty J.
      • Deyo A.
      • Kerekes M.
      Self-quarantine and weight gain related risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Study dates for Zeigler and colleagues108 are not listed. The manuscript was received on May 12, 2020, and results discuss before and after lockdown, suggesting the study was conducted during the early months of the pandemic.
      United States

      Not specified

      Cross-sectional survey
      N = 173

      Sex: 55.5% female, 44.5% male

      Mean age: 28.1 ± 12.5 y

      Race and ethnicity: 66% White or Caucasian, 23% Hispanic, 4% African American, 4% Asian, 2% Hawaiian
      X
      Zhang and colleagues, 2020
      • Zhang J.
      • Zhao A.
      • Ke Y.
      • et al.
      Dietary behaviors in the post-lockdown period and its effects on dietary diversity: the second stage of a nutrition survey in a longitudinal Chinese study in the COVID-19 era.
      China

      March and August 2020

      Longitudinal
      N = 1,994

      Gender: 62.8% female, 37.2% male

      Age: 89% aged 18-45 y, 10.8% aged >45 y
      X
      a Some studies used terminology regarding sex (female, male) to describe gender. Similarly, some studies used terminology related to gender (women, men) to describe sex. This terminology was not edited in this review; gender and sex statistics are presented as they are described in the original article.
      b References with publication dates of 2021 were made available in the year 2020.
      c Gallo and colleagues
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      included three cohorts of Australian university undergraduate students recruited over three different years (2018, 2019, 2020) and compared eating behaviors across men and women separately.
      d Ingram and colleagues
      • Ingram J.
      • Maciejewski G.
      • Hand C.J.
      Changes in diet, sleep, and physical activity are associated with differences in negative mood during COVID-19 lockdown.
      collected data at three time points described as Weeks 1, 3, and 5. However language related to healthy eating refers to levels before and during lockdown. It is assumed the data used are from Week 1 and thus these data are being treated as cross-sectional in nature.
      e Rodríguez-Pérez and colleagues
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      • Molina-Montes E.
      • Verardo V.
      • et al.
      Changes in dietary behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement in the Spanish COVIDiet study.
      list a beginning date; however, an end date is not precisely stated. The original reference states “The questionnaire was open from March 20, concretely 1 week after the Spanish COVID-19 outbreak confinement started. Data from the three first weeks of confinement were collected.” The current authors have interpreted this as a 3-week long study ending on April 10, 2020.
      f The original reporting by Scarmozzino and Visioli
      • Scarmozzino F.
      • Visioli F.
      COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown modified dietary habits of almost half the population in an Italian sample.
      did not include an age category that contained age 20 years.
      g Study dates for Zeigler and colleagues
      • Zeigler Z.
      • Forbes B.
      • Lopez B.
      • Pedersen G.
      • Welty J.
      • Deyo A.
      • Kerekes M.
      Self-quarantine and weight gain related risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      are not listed. The manuscript was received on May 12, 2020, and results discuss before and after lockdown, suggesting the study was conducted during the early months of the pandemic.

      Changes in Amount of Food Consumed

      A total of 24 studies addressed changes to total food intake during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      ,
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      • Bakhsh M.A.
      • Khawandanah J.
      • Naaman R.K.
      • Alashmali S.
      The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on dietary habits and physical activity in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      • Cancello R.
      • Soranna D.
      • Zambra G.
      • Zambon A.
      • Invitti C.
      Determinants of the lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic in the residents of northern Italy.
      • Carroll N.
      • Sadowski A.
      • Laila A.
      • Hruska V.
      • Nixon M.
      • Ma David
      • et al.
      The impact of COVID-19 on health behavior, stress, financial and food security among middle to high income Canadian families with young children.
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      • Górnick M.
      • Ewa Drywien M.
      • Zielinksa M.
      • Hamulka J.
      Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among Polish adults: PLifeCOVID-19 Study.
      • Herle M.
      • Smith A.
      • Bub F.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Fancourt D.
      Trajectories of eating behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of 22,374 adults in the UK.
      • Huber B.C.
      • Steffen J.
      • Schlichtiger J.
      • Brunner S.
      Altered nutrition behavior during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in young adults.
      • Kansiime M.K.
      • Tambo J.A.
      • Mugambi I.
      • Bundi M.
      • Kara A.
      • Owuor C.
      COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: findings from a rapid assessment.
      • Kriaucioniene V.
      • Bagdonaviciene L.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      • Petkeviciene J.
      Associations between changes in health behaviours and body weight during the covid-19 quarantine in Lithuania: the Lithuanian COVIdiet study.
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      • Marty L.
      • de Lauzon-Guillain B.
      • Labesse M.
      • Nicklaus S.
      Food choice motives and the nutritional quality of diet during the COVID-19 lockdown in France.
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      • Radwan H.
      • Al Kitbi M.
      • Al Hilali M.
      • Abbas N.
      • Hamadeh R.
      • Saif E.R.
      • Naja F.
      Diet and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: results of a cross-sectional study.
      • Reyes-Olavarría D.
      • Latorre-Román P.Á.
      • Guzmán-Guzmán I.P.
      • et al.
      Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population.
      • Scarmozzino F.
      • Visioli F.
      COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown modified dietary habits of almost half the population in an Italian sample.
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      Twelve studies conducted in Poland,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Górnick M.
      • Ewa Drywien M.
      • Zielinksa M.
      • Hamulka J.
      Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among Polish adults: PLifeCOVID-19 Study.
      Italy,
      • Cancello R.
      • Soranna D.
      • Zambra G.
      • Zambon A.
      • Invitti C.
      Determinants of the lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic in the residents of northern Italy.
      ,
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      the United Kingdom,
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      the Netherlands,
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      Spain,
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      ,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      Greece,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      Chile,
      • Reyes-Olavarría D.
      • Latorre-Román P.Á.
      • Guzmán-Guzmán I.P.
      • et al.
      Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population.
      Saudi Arabia,
      • Bakhsh M.A.
      • Khawandanah J.
      • Naaman R.K.
      • Alashmali S.
      The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on dietary habits and physical activity in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
      Germany,
      • Huber B.C.
      • Steffen J.
      • Schlichtiger J.
      • Brunner S.
      Altered nutrition behavior during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in young adults.
      and the United Arab Emirates
      • Radwan H.
      • Al Kitbi M.
      • Al Hilali M.
      • Abbas N.
      • Hamadeh R.
      • Saif E.R.
      • Naja F.
      Diet and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: results of a cross-sectional study.
      assessed self-reported changes in quantity of food consumed during (vs before) the pandemic using bipolar scales and response options, including decreased, no change, and increased.
      • Bakhsh M.A.
      • Khawandanah J.
      • Naaman R.K.
      • Alashmali S.
      The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on dietary habits and physical activity in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      • Cancello R.
      • Soranna D.
      • Zambra G.
      • Zambon A.
      • Invitti C.
      Determinants of the lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic in the residents of northern Italy.
      ,
      • Górnick M.
      • Ewa Drywien M.
      • Zielinksa M.
      • Hamulka J.
      Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among Polish adults: PLifeCOVID-19 Study.
      ,
      • Huber B.C.
      • Steffen J.
      • Schlichtiger J.
      • Brunner S.
      Altered nutrition behavior during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in young adults.
      ,
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      ,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      • Radwan H.
      • Al Kitbi M.
      • Al Hilali M.
      • Abbas N.
      • Hamadeh R.
      • Saif E.R.
      • Naja F.
      Diet and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: results of a cross-sectional study.
      • Reyes-Olavarría D.
      • Latorre-Román P.Á.
      • Guzmán-Guzmán I.P.
      • et al.
      Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population.
      Given the synonymous nature of the items used, an aggregated analysis was conducted to capture the composite trends across studies (n = 14,401) (Table 2).
      Table 2Measures and findings for the aggregated analysis of amount of food eaten from 12 studies during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic
      ReferenceM/I
      M/I = measure/item.
      and RO
      RO = response option.
      Study sample sizeFindings
      Findings are reported as n (%).
      Bakhsh and colleagues, 2021
      • Bakhsh M.A.
      • Khawandanah J.
      • Naaman R.K.
      • Alashmali S.
      The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on dietary habits and physical activity in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
      M/I: “Quantity of consumed food”

      RO: D
      D = decrease in amount of food consumed.
      /NC
      NC = no change in amount of food consumed.
      /I
      I = increase in amount of food consumed.
      2,255NC: 878 (38.9)

      I: 894 (39.6)

      D: 483 (21.4)
      Błaszczyk-Bębenek and colleagues, 2020
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      M/I: “In your opinion, has your diet changed due to the social isolation”

      RO: No, I was eating the same kind and quantity of food/Yes, I was eating the same products, but in greater quantities/Yes, I was eating the same products, but in smaller quantities/Yes, I have changed my product range without changing the quantities/Yes, I have changed my product range and I eat more/Yes, I have changed my product range and I eat less
      312NC: 149 (47.8)

      I: 102 (32.7)

      D: 61 (19.5)
      Buckland and colleagues, 2021
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      M/I: “Has the AMOUNT of food you have eaten changed since the lockdown?”

      RO: D/NC/I
      559
      The sample size reported for Buckland and colleagues51 corresponds to the number of participants who answered the item of interest. The total sample size for the overall study was 588 individuals.
      NC: 141 (25.2)

      I: 268 (48.0)

      D: 150 (26.8)
      Cancello and colleagues, 2020
      • Cancello R.
      • Soranna D.
      • Zambra G.
      • Zambon A.
      • Invitti C.
      Determinants of the lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic in the residents of northern Italy.
      M/I: “Can you quantify how much you are eating

      during lockdown?”

      RO: More than usual/Less than usual/Like before/I don’t know
      481
      In Cancello and colleagues,52 2% of the total study sample (490 adults) reported having “no idea” about changes in their food intake. The findings reported for this portion of the review reflect the responses of the participants reporting NC, I, or D. In rounding to establish whole numbers of participants given the percentages available in the original reference, sample sizes for all response options necessitated upward rounding. Thus, the total sample size is inflated to 491 participants with 481 represented in the current findings related to changes in food intake.
      NC: 211 (43.9)

      I: 206 (42.8)

      D: 64 (13.3)
      Górnick and colleagues, 2020
      • Górnick M.
      • Ewa Drywien M.
      • Zielinksa M.
      • Hamulka J.
      Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among Polish adults: PLifeCOVID-19 Study.
      M/I: “Has your total food consumption changed since the beginning of the pandemic (compared to the period before the pandemic)?”

      RO: I eat more/I eat the same/I eat less
      2,381NC: 1229 (51.6)

      I: 816 (34.3)

      D: 336 (14.1)
      Huber and colleagues, 2021
      • Huber B.C.
      • Steffen J.
      • Schlichtiger J.
      • Brunner S.
      Altered nutrition behavior during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in young adults.
      M/I: “How has your diet changed since implementation of lockdown? Overall food amount”

      RO: Less/Unchanged/More
      1,957NC: 1019 (52.1)

      I: 610 (31.2)

      D:328 (16.8)
      López-Moreno and colleagues, 2020
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      M/I: “Do you think you are eating more or less than before?”

      RO: More/less/same
      675NC: 318 (47.1)

      I: 132 (19.6)

      D: 225 (33.3)
      Papandreou and colleagues, 2020
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      M/I: “Has the amount of food increased during [lockdown]”

      RO: D/Same/I
      Spain: 1,002

      Greece: 839

      Total: 1,841
      Spain:

      NC: 143 (14.3)

      I: 114 (11.4)

      D: 745 (74.3)

      Greece:

      NC: 158 (18.8)

      I: 152 (18.1)

      D: 529 (63.1)

      Total:

      NC: 301 (16.4)

      I: 266 (14.4)

      D: 1274 (69.2)
      Pellegrini and colleagues, 2020
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      M/I: “Have you changed eating habits during the lockdown period?”

      RO: No, I have maintained my eating habits/Not too much, with a few exceptions/I eat more than before quarantine/I eat less than before quarantine
      150NC: 71 (47.3)

      I: 60 (40)

      D: 19 (12.7)
      Poelman and colleagues, 2021
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      M/I: “Did you eat more or less than usual [during lockdown]”

      RO: More/No difference/Less
      1,030NC: 854 (82.9)

      I: 92 (8.9)

      D:84 (8.2)
      Radwan and colleagues, 2020
      • Radwan H.
      • Al Kitbi M.
      • Al Hilali M.
      • Abbas N.
      • Hamadeh R.
      • Saif E.R.
      • Naja F.
      Diet and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: results of a cross-sectional study.
      M/I: “Amount of food consumed during lockdown”

      RO: Decrease/ same/ increase
      2,060NC: 1061 (51.5)

      I: 655 (31.8)

      D:344 (16.7)
      Reyes-Olavarría and colleagues, 2020
      • Reyes-Olavarría D.
      • Latorre-Román P.Á.
      • Guzmán-Guzmán I.P.
      • et al.
      Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population.
      M/I: Perceived amount of food consumed
      Reyes-Olavarría and colleagues92 reported the measure variable as “Among of consumption food, perception.”


      RO: Less than before/Same than before/More than before
      700NC: 237 (51.3)

      I: 359 (33.8)

      D:104 (14.9)
      Total weighted sample size and results14,401NC: 6,469 (44.9)

      I: 4,460 (31.0)

      D: 3,472 (24.1)
      Total weighted sample size and results without Papandreou and colleagues
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      12,560NC: 6,168 (49.1)

      I: 4,194 (33.4)

      D: 2,198 (17.5)
      a M/I = measure/item.
      b RO = response option.
      c Findings are reported as n (%).
      d D = decrease in amount of food consumed.
      e NC = no change in amount of food consumed.
      f I = increase in amount of food consumed.
      g The sample size reported for Buckland and colleagues
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      corresponds to the number of participants who answered the item of interest. The total sample size for the overall study was 588 individuals.
      h In Cancello and colleagues,
      • Cancello R.
      • Soranna D.
      • Zambra G.
      • Zambon A.
      • Invitti C.
      Determinants of the lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic in the residents of northern Italy.
      2% of the total study sample (490 adults) reported having “no idea” about changes in their food intake. The findings reported for this portion of the review reflect the responses of the participants reporting NC, I, or D. In rounding to establish whole numbers of participants given the percentages available in the original reference, sample sizes for all response options necessitated upward rounding. Thus, the total sample size is inflated to 491 participants with 481 represented in the current findings related to changes in food intake.
      i Reyes-Olavarría and colleagues
      • Reyes-Olavarría D.
      • Latorre-Román P.Á.
      • Guzmán-Guzmán I.P.
      • et al.
      Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population.
      reported the measure variable as “Among of consumption food, perception.”
      Across studies included in the aggregated analysis, the largest proportion of participants (44.9%) reported no change in their food intake during the pandemic. The next largest group of respondents (31.0%) indicated an increase in food intake, and the third largest group indicated decreased intake (24.1%). Results from Chenarides and colleagues
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      were excluded from the analysis because the item measuring changes in the amount of food consumed included additional response options related to healthy eating and allowed respondents to select multiple answers. The question: “How much has your diet changed since COVID-19 started?” included the following response options: ate less, ate about the same, ate more, ate less healthy, and ate more healthy. Although excluded, the findings roughly mirrored the general pattern with 59.0% reporting they ate about the same diet, 21.4% reporting they ate more, and 13.5% reporting they ate less since COVID-19 started.
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      It should be noted that the Papandreou and colleagues
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      study results differed considerably from the other studies that examined change in consumption quantity, with most respondents (69.2%) in this particular sample reporting a decrease in total intake. When this study’s results are not included in the analysis, 49.1% of respondents report no change in intake, 33.4% report an increase, and 17.5% report a decrease. See Figure 2 for measures and finding for all studies not included in the aggregated analysis.
      Figure 2Measures and findings for changes in the total amount of food (nonaggregated studies) during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
      ReferenceM/I
      M/I = measure/item.
      and RO
      RO = response options.
      Finding
      Aljohani, 2020
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      M/I: “Has there been an increase in your food intake during the pandemic lockdown?”

      RO: Yes/ No/Maybe/ Sometimes/Prefer not to answer
      63% Yes

      22.1% No

      5.75% Maybe

      2.56% Sometimes

      6.52% Prefer not to answer
      Antunes and colleagues 2020
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      M/I: “Do you feel you eat more than usual?”

      RO: Yes/No
      68.4% No

      31.6% Yes
      Carroll and colleagues 2020
      • Carroll N.
      • Sadowski A.
      • Laila A.
      • Hruska V.
      • Nixon M.
      • Ma David
      • et al.
      The impact of COVID-19 on health behavior, stress, financial and food security among middle to high income Canadian families with young children.
      M/I: If responded “yes” to changes in diet, asked in what ways has their diet (or their children’s diet) changed.

      RO: Eating more/less food
      Most common behavior changes were eating more food (mothers, 57%; fathers, 46%; children, 42%),
      Chenarides and colleagues 2021
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Chenarides and colleagues13 used an item that allowed participants to select multiple answers, two of which were irrelevant to the current findings (those regarding healthiness). The findings reported here reflect only the responses to the items related to food intake amount, which were reported by 808 participants (the total sample was 861). Percentages are equal to 100.1% due to rounding.
      M/I: “How much has your diet changed since COVID-19 started?”

      RO: Eat more, eat less, eat about the same, ate less healthy, ate more healthy

      Could select multiple answers
      62.9% same

      22.8% more

      14.4% less
      Gallo and colleagues 2020
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      M/I: 24-h recall task (Automated Self-Administered Dietary Assessment Tool–Australia 2016)

      Compared with previous years.
      For women, total 24-h energy intake was 19.5% higher in 2020 compared with 2018-2019 (P < 0.01). No difference in males.
      Giacalone and colleagues 2020
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      M/I: “Do you think that you are eating more than usual during the confinement?”

      RO: Yes/No
      57.2% reported Yes

      42.8% reported No
      Herle and colleagues 2021
      • Herle M.
      • Smith A.
      • Bub F.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Fancourt D.
      Trajectories of eating behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of 22,374 adults in the UK.
      M/I: “Over the past week have you eaten
      The original item reflected in Herle and colleagues68 was “Over the past week have you eating more than usual?”
      more than usual?” (At the very start of lockdown, longitudinally for 8 weeks)

      RO: Less than usual/About the same/More than usual
      Latent profile analysis profiles

      64%, had no change in eating throughout the observed period

      9% reported persistently eating less

      16% reported persistently eating more

      8% showed an initial increase in reported eating then a steady decrease

      4% reported no changes in first week and increased consumption over time
      Kansiime and colleagues 2021
      • Kansiime M.K.
      • Tambo J.A.
      • Mugambi I.
      • Bundi M.
      • Kara A.
      • Owuor C.
      COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: findings from a rapid assessment.
      M/I: The Food Insecurity Experience Scale
      • Ballard T.J.
      • Kepple A.W.
      • Cafiero C.
      The Food Insecurity Experience Scale: Developing a Global Standard for Monitoring Hunger Worldwide.


      In FIES: “You ate less than you thought you should?”

      In study: “Ate less amount of food”

      RO: Yes/No
      Percent of people reporting eating less food during a “normal period” (not COVID-19 period) and during the COVID-19 period. All are significant (P < 0.01)

      In total sample: 23% normal period, 54% COVID-19 period

      Kenya sample: 24% normal period, 56% COVID-19

      Uganda sample: 19% normal period, 48% COVID-19 period
      Kriaucioniene and colleagues 2020
      • Kriaucioniene V.
      • Bagdonaviciene L.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      • Petkeviciene J.
      Associations between changes in health behaviours and body weight during the covid-19 quarantine in Lithuania: the Lithuanian COVIdiet study.
      M/I: “Perception of eating more during the quarantine”

      RO: Yes/No
      50.6% No

      49.4% Yes
      Marty and colleagues 2021
      • Marty L.
      • de Lauzon-Guillain B.
      • Labesse M.
      • Nicklaus S.
      Food choice motives and the nutritional quality of diet during the COVID-19 lockdown in France.
      M/I: Validated food frequency measure to estimate energy intakeAverage of 1,935 ± 656 kcal/d in first month in lockdown compared with 1,700 ± 596 kcal/d in the month before (P < 0.001)
      Scarmozzino and Visioli, 2020
      • Scarmozzino F.
      • Visioli F.
      COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown modified dietary habits of almost half the population in an Italian sample.
      M/I: “Would you say that you are eating more during this lockdown?

      RO: Yes, much more/Yes, a bit more/No
      47.1% No

      46.1% Yes, a bit more

      6.8% Yes, much more
      Sidor and Rzymski, 2020
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      M/I: “Did you consume more food than usual during quarantine?”

      RO: Decidedly yes/Yes/Hard to decide/No / decidedly no
      43.5% reported eating more
      a M/I = measure/item.
      b RO = response options.
      c Chenarides and colleagues
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      used an item that allowed participants to select multiple answers, two of which were irrelevant to the current findings (those regarding healthiness). The findings reported here reflect only the responses to the items related to food intake amount, which were reported by 808 participants (the total sample was 861). Percentages are equal to 100.1% due to rounding.
      d The original item reflected in Herle and colleagues
      • Herle M.
      • Smith A.
      • Bub F.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Fancourt D.
      Trajectories of eating behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of 22,374 adults in the UK.
      was “Over the past week have you eating more than usual?”
      Six studies used unipolar measures assessing only whether participants were eating more during (relative to before) the pandemic.
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      ,
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      ,
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      ,
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      • Scarmozzino F.
      • Visioli F.
      COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown modified dietary habits of almost half the population in an Italian sample.
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      Most studies using this type of measure found high proportions of individuals responding “yes” to increased consumption. The highest percentage of individuals reporting more food intake came from a sample of adults in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia, with 63% reporting increased food intake.
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      A study of Portuguese adults had the lowest reported increase with only 31.6% of individuals responding that they ate more during the pandemic.
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      A study based in Italy showed nuanced reporting of increased food intake, with 46.1% reporting “Yes, a bit more” and only 6.8% reporting “Yes, much more.”
      • Scarmozzino F.
      • Visioli F.
      COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown modified dietary habits of almost half the population in an Italian sample.
      This distinction in the reported amount of increase highlights a key limitation of self-reported responses for food consumption; for most measures, it is unclear how much of an increase over normal habits respondents are indicating with their “yes” responses. Different perceptions and responses to forced-choice, binary appraisals of food consumption may lead to a distortion in the overall trends regarding food intake behaviors.
      One study from Kenya and Uganda measured whether people ate less.
      • Kansiime M.K.
      • Tambo J.A.
      • Mugambi I.
      • Bundi M.
      • Kara A.
      • Owuor C.
      COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: findings from a rapid assessment.
      Significant increases in the amount of people reporting eating less food than they thought they should were found in the total sample (54% during the COVID-19 period, 23% during normal periods) and both subsamples (Kenya: 56% during COVID-19 period, 24% during normal periods; Uganda: 48% during COVID-19 period, 19% during normal periods). This question was part of a food insecurity questionnaire that, taken all together, showed significantly lower rates of food security during the COVID-19 period compared with normal periods before the pandemic.
      • Kansiime M.K.
      • Tambo J.A.
      • Mugambi I.
      • Bundi M.
      • Kara A.
      • Owuor C.
      COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: findings from a rapid assessment.
      Whereas the remaining four studies used unique measure formats or populations to study changes in food intake, results aligned with the findings obtained via the other measurement strategies. One study of Canadian families showed that the most common eating behavior change was an increase in eating, reported among 57% of mothers, 46% of fathers, and 42% of children.
      • Carroll N.
      • Sadowski A.
      • Laila A.
      • Hruska V.
      • Nixon M.
      • Ma David
      • et al.
      The impact of COVID-19 on health behavior, stress, financial and food security among middle to high income Canadian families with young children.
      Two studies used validated measures of energy intake. One found that on average, French participants reported eating significantly more (∼235 kcal/day) during the first month of lockdown compared with the month before.
      • Marty L.
      • de Lauzon-Guillain B.
      • Labesse M.
      • Nicklaus S.
      Food choice motives and the nutritional quality of diet during the COVID-19 lockdown in France.
      Similarly, a longitudinal study of Australian adults showed that among females there was a significant increase (19.5%) in average 24-hour energy intake compared with reported levels from 2018 and 2019.
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      Lastly, Herle and colleagues
      • Herle M.
      • Smith A.
      • Bub F.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Fancourt D.
      Trajectories of eating behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of 22,374 adults in the UK.
      gathered longitudinal data to assess changes in eating behaviors over the first 8 weeks of lockdown. Using latent profile analyses, they found the most common profile response (64%) to be one of no change in eating behaviors, followed by 16% reporting persistently eating more. About 9% reported persistently eating less, whereas 8% showed an initial increase followed by a steady decrease and 4% reported no changes in the first week and then a steady increase in consumption over time.
      • Herle M.
      • Smith A.
      • Bub F.
      • Steptoe A.
      • Fancourt D.
      Trajectories of eating behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: Longitudinal analyses of 22,374 adults in the UK.

      Changes in Eating Frequency and Timing

      Eating frequency in the context of the present review relates to the number of total meals and snacks consumed daily, and whether or not this number has changed under the circumstances of the pandemic and the associated periods of home confinement that occurred globally. In total, 20 articles discussed the frequency of eating.
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      ,
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      ,
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      ,
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      ,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Assessment of eating habits and lifestyle during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa region: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Di Renzo L.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Pivari F.
      • Soldati L.
      • Attina A.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey.
      ,
      • Flanagan E.W.
      • Beyl R.A.
      • Fearnbach S.N.
      • Altazan A.D.
      • Martin C.K.
      • Redman L.M.
      The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults.
      ,
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      ,
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      ,
      • Husain W.
      • Ashkanani F.
      Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      ,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      ,
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      ,
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      ,
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      ,
      • Wang X.
      • Lei S.M.
      • Le S.
      • et al.
      Bidirectional influence of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on health behaviors and quality of life among Chinese adults.
      ,
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      Timing involves the intake of meals and snacks as it relates to the respondent’s typical eating schedule over a 24-hour period. There were three articles that presented evidence of how meal timing has been influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting disruptions to routines, patterns, and schedules.
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      ,
      • Sutaria M.
      • Keny G.
      • Pratinidhi S.A.
      COVID-19 and its effect on nutrition.
      Meal skipping was determined to be a distinct, specified behavior and is thus covered in a later section. See Figures 3 and 4 for overviews of findings and measures used.
      Figure 3Measures and findings for changes in the frequency of eating during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
      ReferenceM/I
      M/I = measure/item.
      and RO
      RO = response options.
      Findings
      Aljohani, 2020
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      M/I: “In the occurrence of having an increase in your food intake, how many meals do you consume a day?”

      RO: 4-5 meals/6-7 meals/More than 7 meals

      M/I: “Have you started eating light meals after dinner (during the lockdown period)?”

      RO: Yes/No/Sometimes
      63% reported an increase in their food consumption, and of those who increased their food consumption, 75% ate 6-7 meals a day, 14.4% ate more than 7 meals a day, and 9.9% ate 4-5 meals a day, respectively.

      Percent reporting light meals after dinner

      47.9% started eating during lockdown

      41.3% did not start eating during lockdown

      10.7% started eating sometimes during lockdown
      Ammar and colleagues, 2020
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      Both measured as before and after lockdown

      M/I: “How likely are you to have a snack between meals or a late-night snack?”

      RO: Never/Sometimes/Most of the time /Always

      M/I: “How many main meals do you eat a day?”

      RO: 1-2/3/4/5/more than 5
      Percentage of people reporting having a snack between meals or a late-night snack:

      Never: 19.77% before; 14.71% during

      Sometimes: 59.41% before; 45.56% during

      Most of the time: 13.85% before; 24.36% during

      Always: 6.97% before; 15.38% during

      Overall, there was a significant increase in snacking between meals or late-night (P < 0.001).

      Percentage of respondents reporting eating certain numbers of main meals:

      1-2 meals: 35.15% before; 29.99% during

      3 meals: 55.11% before; 46.42% during

      4 meals: 6.59% before; 14.52% during

      5 meals: 2.39% before; 6.30% during

      More than 5 meals: 0.76% before; 2.77% during

      There was a significant increase in the number of meals eaten
      Antunes and colleagues, 2020
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      M/I: “Do you feel you eat more often than usual?”

      RO: Yes/No
      45.2% reported a higher food frequency

      54.8% reported their food frequency was not higher
      Ben Hassen and colleagues, 2020
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      M/I: Change of food-related activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eating between meals (eg, snacks)

      RO: Never /First time /Much less /Slightly less/About the same /Moderately more /Much more
      Percent of respondent reporting on snacking between meals:

      4.7% reported never snacking

      0.50% reported their first time snacking

      6.8% reported snacking much less

      7.3% reported snacking slightly less

      45.5% reported snacking about the same

      23.3% reported snacking moderately more

      12% reported snacking much more
      Błaszczyk-Bębenek and colleagues, 2020
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      Survey questions were adapted from the Dietary Habits and Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire for people aged 15-65 y
      • Jeżewska-Zychowicz M.
      • Gawęcki J.
      • Wądołowska L.
      • Czarnocińska J.
      Dietary Habits and Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire for People 15–65 Years Old, version 1.1.


      M/I: “How many meals do you usually consume daily?”

      RO: 1 meal per day/2 meals per day/3 meals per day/4 meals per day/5+ meals per day

      M/I: How often do you snack between the meals?

      RO: Not listed or Never/1-3 times per month/Once per week/Few times per week/Once per day/Few times per day
      Percentage of people reporting eating certain numbers of main meals before and after lockdown:

      1 meal/d 0.6% before; 0.3% after (0.3% decrease)

      2 meals/d 7.1% before; 4.8% after (2.3% decrease)

      3 meals/d 32.1% before; 23.1% after (9% decrease)

      4 meals/d 40.4% before; 40.7% after (0.3% increase)

      5 meals+/d 19.9% before; 31.1% after (11.2% increase)

      The increase in 5+ meals/d was significant (P < 0.001)

      72.8% before and 77.9% during reported they regularly snacked (few times per week and more), This was a significant increase (P = 0.0001)
      Cheikh Ismail and colleagues, 2020
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      M/I: How many meals did you eat per day before coronavirus pandemic?

      RO: 1-2/3-4/More than 5

      M/I: How many meals do you eat per day during coronavirus pandemic?

      RO: 1-2/3-4/More than 5
      Percentage of respondents reporting eating certain numbers of main meals:

      1-2 meals: 46.4% before; 36.5% during

      3-4 meals: 51.5% before; 56.5% during

      5+ meals: 2.1% before; 7.0% during

      The increase in 5+ meals/d was significant (P < 0.001)
      Cheikh Ismail and colleagues, 2021
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Assessment of eating habits and lifestyle during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa region: a cross-sectional study.
      M/I: How many meals did you eat per day before coronavirus pandemic?

      RO: 1-2/3-4/More than 5

      M/I: How many meals do you eat per day during coronavirus pandemic?

      RO: 1-2/3-4/More than 5
      Percentage of respondents reporting eating certain numbers of main meals:

      1-2 meals: 45.6% before; 37.5% during

      3-4 meals: 52.2% before; 56.2% during

      5+ meals 2.2% before; 6.2% during

      The increase in 5+ meals/d was significant (P < 0.001)
      Di Renzo, Gualtieri, Pivari and colleagues, 2020
      • Di Renzo L.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Pivari F.
      • Soldati L.
      • Attina A.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey.
      M/I: “Did you change the number of daily meals, during this period?”

      RO: No, it didn't/Yes, I skip 1 or more of the main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner)/Yes, I skip 1 or more of snacks between meals/Yes, I added 1 or more of the main meals/Yes, I added 1 or more of the snacks between meals/Yes, I eat out of the meals
      The response options stated here are quoted directly from reference 67. There was no reporting on the “Yes, I eat out of the meals” response option.
      57.8% did not change their number of daily meals

      17.5% skipped a meal or snack

      23.5% introduced a meal or snack
      Flanagan and colleagues, 2021
      • Flanagan E.W.
      • Beyl R.A.
      • Fearnbach S.N.
      • Altazan A.D.
      • Martin C.K.
      • Redman L.M.
      The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults.
      M/I: Changes in dietary behaviors were assessed. The form included questions about cooking and eating out habits and snacking before and during the pandemic. Perception of overall healthy eating habits and weight change was asked

      The optional long form was a modification of the Rapid Eating Assessment
      • Segal-Isaacson C.J.
      • Wylie-Rosett J.
      • Gans K.M.
      Validation of a short dietary assessment questionnaire: the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Participants short version (REAP-S).
      25.8% reported an increase in healthy snacking

      43.5% reported an increase in unhealthy snacking
      Gallo and colleagues, 2020
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      M/I: 24-h recall task (Automated Self-Administered Dietary Assessment Tool-Australia 2016)

      Compared to previous years
      Among males, there was no difference in the number of snack occasions between 2020 and 2018-2019

      In women, there was an increase to two snack occasions in 2020 compared with one in 2018-2019 (P < 0.05)
      Giacalone and colleagues, 2020
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      M/I: “Have you increased the frequency of snacking during the confinement compared to your usual intake?”

      RO: Yes. My snacking frequency is higher/No. My snacking frequency is lower/My snacking frequency remains as usual”
      41.7% snacked more frequently

      47.5% snacked as frequently as usual

      10.8% snacked less frequently
      Husain and Ashkanani, 2020
      • Husain W.
      • Ashkanani F.
      Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study.
      M/I: How many times a day do you eat?

      RO: 1 time/2 times/3 times/4 times/5 times/6 or more
      No significant changes in meal frequency.

      Percentage of respondents reporting eating a certain number of times per day:

      1 time/d: 1.2% before; 1.0% during

      2 times/d: 13.5% before; 10.4% during

      3 times/d: 29.9% before; 27.0% during

      4 times/d: 31.6% before; 25.1% during

      5 times/d: 19.3% before; 21.4% during

      6+ times/d: 4.6% before; 15.2% during
      López-Moreno and colleagues, 2020
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      Asked for before and after lockdown

      M/I: How many intakes do you make per day of these top 5? Check the ones you usually do.

      RO: Before/during confinement: Breakfast/mid-morning/Lunch/Snack/Dinner/Bedtime snack
      Before 1% reported eating 5 meals/d

      During 23% reported eating 5 meals/d
      Papandreou and colleagues, 2020
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      M/I: The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
      • van Strien T.
      • Frijters J.E.R.
      • Bergers G.P.A.
      • Defares P.B.
      The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior.
      was utilized to assess eating behaviors
      59.8% of the Spain sample and 51.7% of the Greece sample reported that they follow same hours/number of meals during the pandemic

      34.1% of the Spain sample and 40.8% of the Greece sample reported that they did increase the number of snacks between meals during the pandemic
      Pellegrini and colleagues, 2020
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      M/I: “During the lockdown period, the number of snacks that you consume in a day”

      RO: I don’t consume snacks usually/Is less than before quarantine/Is the same as before quarantine/Is more than before quarantine
      28% “I don’t consume snacks usually”

      11.3% “is less than before quarantine”

      28% “is the same as before quarantine”

      32.7% “is more than before quarantine”
      Poelman and colleagues, 2021
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      M/I: Participants asked to identify if they ate differently than usual (with more awareness, taking more time, during different occasions, more often and snacking more frequently).

      RO: Fully disagree (1) to fully agree (5). Calculated the number of participants that (fully) agreed on each of the items (score 4 or 5)
      14.2% ate more frequently

      22.1% reported eating more sweets and snacks
      Robinson and colleagues, 2021
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      M/I: “Compared to before the COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom, I have: Eaten large meals or snacks”

      RO: A lot less/Less/A little less/The same amount/A little more/More/A lot more

      M/I: “Compared to before the COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom, I have: Snacked”

      RO: A lot less/Less/A little less/The same amount/A little more/More/A lot more
      Compared with before lockdown:

      3% ate a lot less large meals or snacks

      8% ate less large meals or snacks

      10% ate a little less large meals or snacks

      34% ate the same amount of large meals or snacks

      26% ate a little more large meals or snacks

      14% ate more large meals or snacks

      4% ate a lot more large meals or snacks.

      5% snacked a lot less

      8% snacked less

      10% snacked a little less

      22% snacked the same amount

      27% snacked a little more

      21% snacked more

      8% snacked a lot more
      Sidor and Rzymski, 2020
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      M/I: “Indicate the number of meals eaten per day during quarantine”

      RO: 1/2/3/4/5/6 or more

      M/I: “Did you snack more frequently than usual during quarantine?”

      RO: decidedly yes /yes/hard to decide/ no/ decidedly no”

      M/I: “Indicate the number of snacks eaten per day during quarantine”

      RO: None/1/2/3/4 or more
      51.8% snacked between meals more frequently

      Most frequent number of meals per day during quarantine:

      3 (30.3%)

      4 (39.3%)

      Most frequent number of snacks per day during the quarantine:

      1 (28.3%)

      2 (36.1%)
      Wang and colleagues, 2020
      • Wang X.
      • Lei S.M.
      • Le S.
      • et al.
      Bidirectional influence of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on health behaviors and quality of life among Chinese adults.
      M/I: Food consumption questionnaire adapted from the online nutritional survey of Guangdong Nutrition Society and Sun Yat-sen University

      [measure is not in English, but can be found here: https://www.wjx.cn/m/59273857.aspx]

      Translated:

      M/I: “Your staple food intake during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic”

      RO: Increase/Reduce/No significant changes
      23.1% reduced their daily eating frequency

      17.3% increased their daily eating frequency, and 60% reported no changes in eating frequency
      Yılmaz and colleagues, 2020
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      M/I: Main meal in COVID-19 pandemic

      RO: Increased/Not changed/Decreased

      M/I: Snacks in COVID-19 pandemic

      RO: Increased/Not changed/Decreased

      M/I: Mean meal [daily number of meals consumed before the COVID-19 pandemic]

      RO: 1/2/3

      M/I: Snacks [daily number of snacks consumed before the COVID-19 pandemic]

      RO: 1/2/3
      71% no change in the number of main meals

      23% increased number of main meals

      6% decreased in the number of main meals

      57.5% no change in the number of snacks

      38% increased the number of snacks

      4.5% decreased the number of snacks

      58.3% consumed two main meals per day and 43.9% consumed 1 snack before COVID-19

      During COVID-19, 23.0% reported an increase in the number of meals and 38.0% an increase of snacks
      a M/I = measure/item.
      b RO = response options.
      c The response options stated here are quoted directly from reference 67. There was no reporting on the “Yes, I eat out of the meals” response option.

      Frequency of Meals and Snacks

      Meals

      The predominant trend of the 13 studies reviewed
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      ,
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      ,
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      ,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Assessment of eating habits and lifestyle during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa region: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Di Renzo L.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Pivari F.
      • Soldati L.
      • Attina A.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey.
      ,
      • Husain W.
      • Ashkanani F.
      Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      ,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      ,
      • Wang X.
      • Lei S.M.
      • Le S.
      • et al.
      Bidirectional influence of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on health behaviors and quality of life among Chinese adults.
      ,
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      was no change in the number of meals individuals reported consuming during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with prior.
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.
      ,
      • Di Renzo L.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Pivari F.
      • Soldati L.
      • Attina A.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey.
      ,
      • Husain W.
      • Ashkanani F.
      Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Wang X.
      • Lei S.M.
      • Le S.
      • et al.
      Bidirectional influence of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on health behaviors and quality of life among Chinese adults.
      ,
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      For example, the majority of cross-sectional study participants in Turkey (71%),
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      China (60%),
      • Wang X.
      • Lei S.M.
      • Le S.
      • et al.
      Bidirectional influence of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns on health behaviors and quality of life among Chinese adults.
      and Italy (58%)
      • Di Renzo L.
      • Gualtieri P.
      • Pivari F.
      • Soldati L.
      • Attina A.
      • Cinelli G.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey.
      reported no change in the number of meals consumed.
      When the number of meals eaten throughout a given day did change, it largely increased.
      • Aljohani N.E.
      The effect of the lockdown for the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on body weight changes and eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      ,
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      ,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Assessment of eating habits and lifestyle during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa region: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      ,
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      For example, an international survey with participants predominantly representing Western Asia, Northern Africa, and Europe found that the number of meals consumed per day significantly increased during the home confinement period (t = −5.83; P < 0.001; d = 0.22).
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      Specifically, there were increases in the number of participants consuming four meals, five meals, and more than five meals during confinement compared with before confinement. Similarly, studies in the United Arab Emirates and Middle East and North Africa regions found increases in the number of meals consumed per day with those consuming five or more meals per day increasing significantly.
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Assessment of eating habits and lifestyle during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa region: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      Furthermore, a study of Spanish adults found that the “pattern” of number of meals among the study population changed with more people consuming five meals a day during confinement (23%) compared with before (1%).
      • López-Moreno M.
      • López M.T.I.
      • Miguel M.
      • Garcés-Rimón M.
      Physical and psychological effects related to food habits and lifestyle changes derived from covid-19 home confinement in the spanish population.
      A UK-based study (n = 2,002) found that 44% of respondents increased meal frequency (26% reported a little more, 14% more, and 4% a lot more) followed by 34% reporting they ate the same number of meals.
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      These data once again illustrate the nuances in the magnitude of changes in the number of eating occasions that are not visible in measures that only consider overall increase or decrease.
      The remaining studies evaluated frequency of meals utilizing measures that are less common in the literature. One study of 1,404 adults in Portugal reported that 55% of participants did not eat at a higher frequency; however, the extent to which eating frequency stayed the same or decreased is unclear.
      • Antunes R.
      • Frontini R.
      • Amaro N.
      • Salvador R.
      • Matos R.
      • Morouço P.
      • Rebelo-Gonçalves R.
      Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19.

      Snacks

      Across the 12 studies that assessed snacking frequency,
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      ,
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      ,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Flanagan E.W.
      • Beyl R.A.
      • Fearnbach S.N.
      • Altazan A.D.
      • Martin C.K.
      • Redman L.M.
      The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults.
      ,
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      ,
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      ,
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      ,
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      ,
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      ,
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      ,
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      most found that individuals either reported an increase
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      ,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      ,
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      ,
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      or no change
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      ,
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      ,
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      in snacking frequency. For example, increased snacking was reported by 56% of a sample from the United Kingdom (27% a little more, 21% more, and 8% a lot more),
      • Robinson E.
      • Boyland E.
      • Chisholm A.
      • et al.
      Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: a study of UK adults.
      51.8% of a sample from Poland,
      • Sidor A.
      • Rzymski P.
      Dietary choices and habits during COVID-19 lockdown: experience from Poland.
      and 32.7% of a sample from Italy (28.0% indicated they do not consume snacks usually, and 28.0% reported no change).
      • Pellegrini M.
      • Ponzo V.
      • Rosato R.
      • et al.
      Changes in weight and nutritional habits in adults with obesity during the “lockdown” period caused by the COVID-19 virus emergency.
      Similarly, international samples from Western Asia, Northern Africa, and Europe reported a significant increase in the number of snacks and the proportion of participants snacking between meals or late-night snacking during home confinement compared with snacking behavior before the pandemic (t = −6.89; P < 0.001; d = 0.30).
      • Ammar A.
      • Brach M.
      • Trabelsi K.
      • et al.
      Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey.
      Further, whereas studies from Turkey,
      • Yılmaz H.Ö.
      • Aslan R.
      • Unal C.
      Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and food purchasing behaviors of university students.
      Denmark,
      • Giacalone D.
      • Frøst M.B.
      • Rodríguez-Pérez C.
      Reported changes in dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Danish population: The Danish COVIDiet study.
      and Qatar
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      found that the most common response was no change (57.5%, 47.5%, and 45.5%, respectively), a large proportion of the samples also reported increased snacking (38%, 41.7%, and 35.3%, respectively).
      Two studies assessed how the relationship between COVID-19 confinement and snacking frequency might be modified by other factors such as sex and snack healthfulness.
      • Flanagan E.W.
      • Beyl R.A.
      • Fearnbach S.N.
      • Altazan A.D.
      • Martin C.K.
      • Redman L.M.
      The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults.
      ,
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      One longitudinal study of university students in Australia found that levels of snacking were no different between 2018, 2019, and 2020 samples of men, but snacking increased among women.
      • Gallo L.A.
      • Gallo T.F.
      • Young S.L.
      • Moritz K.M.
      • Akison L.K.
      The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 Australian university students.
      In addition, in a study focused on Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada, 25.8% of participants reported an increase in healthy snacking, whereas 43.5% of participants reported an increase in unhealthy snacking.
      • Flanagan E.W.
      • Beyl R.A.
      • Fearnbach S.N.
      • Altazan A.D.
      • Martin C.K.
      • Redman L.M.
      The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults.
      Two studies measuring snacking frequency found snacking did not increase among their participants; however, the survey did not differentiate whether a “no increase” response meant that the respondents were eating the same amount as before or less than before.
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      For example, one study reported that only 34.1% of a Spanish sample and 40.8% of a Greek sample answered “yes” to a measure of increased snacking.
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.

      Timing of Meals and Snacks

      There is limited evidence available illustrating how timing of eating has been influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Three studies asked participants to indicate how their eating routines had changed during confinement compared with before.
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      ,
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      ,
      • Sutaria M.
      • Keny G.
      • Pratinidhi S.A.
      COVID-19 and its effect on nutrition.
      In a study of adults from India (n = 422), 50.2% of respondents reported their eating schedule did change, and 11.1% reported that their schedule might have changed.
      • Sutaria M.
      • Keny G.
      • Pratinidhi S.A.
      COVID-19 and its effect on nutrition.
      Papandreou and colleagues
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      and Poelman and colleagues
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.
      both included measures of meal timing but did not explicitly ask their participants how they modified their meal schedules. As previously mentioned, Papandreou and colleagues
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      measured frequency and timing in the same question. They report that 59.8% of the sample from Spain and 51.7% of the sample from Greece did maintain the same hours and numbers of meals during the pandemic.
      • Papandreou C.
      • Arija V.
      • Aretouli E.
      • Tsilidis K.K.
      • Bulló M.
      Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
      In addition, 16.9% of participants from the Netherlands reported that they “ate at different times” during the lockdown period.
      • Poelman M.P.
      • Gillebaart M.
      • Schlinkert C.
      • et al.
      Eating behavior and food purchases during the COVID-19 lockdown: a cross-sectional study among adults in the Netherlands.

      Changes in Consumption of Specific Food Types

      A total of 38 articles reported on changes in the consumption of specific foods.
      • Chenarides L.
      • Grebitus C.
      • Lusk J.L.
      • Printezis I.
      Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      ,
      • Alhusseini N.
      • Alqahtani A.
      COVID-19 pandemics impact on eating habits in Saudi Arabia.
      ,
      • Bakhsh M.A.
      • Khawandanah J.
      • Naaman R.K.
      • Alashmali S.
      The impact of COVID-19 quarantine on dietary habits and physical activity in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Bann D.
      • Aase V.
      • Maddock J.
      • et al.
      Changes in the behavioural determinants of health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: gender, socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in 5 British cohort studies.
      ,
      • Ben Hassen T.
      • El Bilali H.
      • Allahyari M.S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on food behavior and consumption in Qatar.
      ,
      • Bin Zarah A.
      • Enriquez-Marulanda J.
      • Andrade J.M.
      Relationship between dietary habits, food attitudes and food security status among adults living within the United States three months post-mandated quarantine: a cross-sectional study.
      ,
      • Błaszczyk-Bębenek E.
      • Jagielski P.
      • Bolesławska I.
      • Jagielska A.
      • Nitsch-Osuch A.
      • Kawalec P.
      Nutrition behaviors in polish adults before and during COVID-19 lockdown.
      ,
      • Buckland N.J.
      • Swinnerton L.F.
      • Ng K.
      • Price M.
      • Wilkinson L.
      • Myer A.
      • et al.
      Susceptibility to increased high energy dense sweet and savoury food intake in response to the COVID-19 lockdown: the role of craving control and acceptance coping strategies.
      ,
      • Carroll N.
      • Sadowski A.
      • Laila A.
      • Hruska V.
      • Nixon M.
      • Ma David
      • et al.
      The impact of COVID-19 on health behavior, stress, financial and food security among middle to high income Canadian families with young children.
      ,
      • Celik B.
      • Dane S.
      The effects of COVID-19 pandemic outbreak on food consumption preferences and their causes.
      ,
      • Cheikh Ismail L.
      • Osaili T.M.
      • Mohamad M.N.
      • et al.
      Eating habits and lifestyle during covid-19 lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study.
      ,