Main outcome measures
Statistical analysis performed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Study Design and Participants
Texas Education Agency.
|Characteristic||Combined (16 schools)||Intervention (8 schools)||Control (8 schools)||P value|
|Total fourth- and fifth-grade students enrolled||3,114||1,400||1714||—|
|Male||1,601 (51.4)||731 (52.2)||868 (50.6)|
|Female||1,513 (48.6)||669 (47.8)||847 (49.4)|
|Race and ethnicity|
|Asian or Pacific Islander||137 (4.4)||63 (4.4)||74 (4.3)||.96|
|Hispanic or Latino||2,177 (69.9)||972 (69.4)||1,207 (70.4)||.90|
|Non-Hispanic White||498 (16)||234 (16.7)||264 (15.4)||.86|
|Non-Hispanic Black||302 (9.7)||133 (9.5)||170 (9.9)||.52|
|Free and reduced lunch status||.69|
|Elgible||2,398 (77.0)||1,057 (75.5)||1,337 (78.0)|
|Ineligible||716 (23.0)||343 (24.5)||377 (22.0)|
|STAAR Scores (%)|
|Variable||Intervention||Control||P value for baseline|
|Differences in mean percentage|
|Intervention effect P value|
|95% CI for difference|
|Fourth-grade reading||63.13 (4.62)||68.38 (3.84)||56.88 (4.55)||55.63 (3.15)||.355||6.5 (4.14)||.047||0.05 to 18.99|
|Fourth-grade math||65.38 (3.56)||67.13 (5.13)||58.50 (6.29)||58.75 (3.56)||.358||1.5 (4.91)||.624||–12.22 to 15.06|
|Fifth-grade reading||75.38 (4.21)||77.13 (4.06)||69.50 (3.25)||72.13 (4.21)||.288||0.88 (2.89)||.991||–11.09 to 15.39|
|Fifth-grade math||83.00 (2.90)||82.88 (3.75)||78.13 (3.56)||76.88 (4.37)||.306||1.13 (2.85)||.995||–5.85 to 7.20|
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Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
FUNDING/SUPPORT Supported by the National Institutes of Health , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 5R01HL123865-05.
ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT02668744.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS J. N. Davis and K. Nikah collected and analyzed the data and wrote the first draft. All authors reviewed and commented on subsequent drafts of the manuscript.
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