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A Randomized Intervention of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education Did Not Improve Dietary Outcomes Except for Vitamin D Among Lower-Income Women in Indiana

      Abstract

      Background

      The goal of US Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education (SNAP-Ed) is to improve the likelihood that those eligible for SNAP will make healthy choices aligned with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025.

      Objective

      The objective of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a direct SNAP-Ed intervention in which participants actively engage in learning with educator instruction about dietary quality and usual intake of key nutrient and food groups among Indiana SNAP-Ed–eligible women participants as an example sample in the context of no similar existing evaluation.

      Design

      The study design was a parallel-arm, randomized controlled, nutrition education intervention, with follow-up at 1 year.

      Participants/setting

      Participants (18 years and older; n = 97 women) eligible for SNAP-Ed and interested in receiving nutrition education lessons were recruited from 31 Indiana counties from August 2015 to May 2016 and randomized to an intervention (n = 53) or control (n = 44) group.

      Intervention

      The intervention comprised core lessons of Indiana SNAP-Ed delivered between 4 and 10 weeks after baseline assessment. Each participant completed a baseline and 1-year follow-up assessment. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 2).

      Main outcome measures

      Mean usual nutrient, food group intake, diet quality (ie, Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores), and proportion of intervention and control groups meeting Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025 recommendations and Dietary Reference Intake indicators of requirement or adequacy, were determined using the National Cancer Institute method and the simple Healthy Eating Index-2010 scoring algorithm method. Dietary changes between intervention and control groups were examined over time using mixed linear models.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Bonferroni-corrected significance levels were applied to the results of the mixed linear models for comparisons of usual intake of nutrients and foods.

      Results

      No differences in diet quality, intake of food group components, food group intake, or nutrients were observed at 1-year follow-up, except that vitamin D intake was higher among those who received SNAP-Ed compared with the control group.

      Conclusions

      A direct SNAP-Ed intervention did not improve diet quality, food group intake, or key nutrient intake, except for vitamin D, among Indiana SNAP-Ed–eligible women up to 1 year after the nutrition education.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      Y. Qin is a PhD student, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      R. L. Rivera is a PhD student, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      Y. Zhang is a PhD student, Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      Q. Wang is a research scientist, Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      J. A. Tooze is a professor, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

      Biography

      A. R. Abbott is an assistant dean of Health and Human Sciences Extension and associate director of Purdue Extension, Health and Human Sciences Extension, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      M. K. Maulding is an instructor and dietetics internship coordinator, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston.

      Biography

      B. A. Craig is a professor, Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      R. L. Bailey is a professor, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      H. A. Eicher-Miller is a professor, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.