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Dietary Intakes of Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder During a 4-Week Protocol on an Inpatient Treatment Unit Found to Meet Dietary Reference Intakes for Macronutrients, but Have Variability in Energy Balance and Adequacy of Micronutrient Intake

      Abstract

      Background

      Despite literature supporting the importance of diet during rehabilitation, minimal research quantifies dietary intake during treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD).

      Objective

      The aim was to quantify dietary intake and energy balance of patients with AUD during inpatient treatment.

      Design

      This was a secondary analysis of data from a 4-week observational protocol. Participants self-selected food from a room service menu. Dietary intake was recorded by patients and reviewed by nutrition staff. To quantify nutrient and food group intake, data were coded into Nutrition Data Systems for Research software, versions 2016 and 2017. Daily average intake was calculated for all dietary variables.

      Participants/setting

      Participants (n = 22) were adults seeking treatment for AUD at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD) between September 2016 and September 2017 and who were enrolled in a study examining the microbiome during AUD rehabilitation. Four participants discontinued protocol participation before study week 4 and were not included in analyses examining change over time.

      Main outcome measures

      Weight change, daily energy, and macronutrient and select micronutrient intakes were the main outcome measures included.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Mean differences in intake and weight were assessed using nonparametric tests.

      Results

      Sixty-four percent of participants were male; mean ± SD age was 46.3 ± 13.0 years, mean ± SD body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) was 23.9 ± 2.5, and mean intake was 2,665 kcal/d (consisting of 45.9% carbohydrate, 34.9% fat, and 19.1% protein). Eighty percent or more of this sample met the Estimated Average Requirement for 10 of 16 micronutrients assessed. Male participants consumed more energy than estimated needs (P = .003) and gained a mean ± SD of 2.67 ± 1.84 kg (P = .006) when an outlier with weight loss and acute pancreatitis was removed from analysis. Female participants did not gain weight or consume more than estimated energy needs.

      Conclusions

      Overall macronutrient intake was within recommended ranges, but intake of other dietary components and weight gain were variable, supporting the need for individualized nutrition care during AUD treatment.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      S. Yang is a metabolic clinical research dietitian, Nutrition Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      K. Ratteree is a metabolic quality assurance dietitian, Nutrition Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      S. A. Turner is a metabolic clinical research dietitian, Nutrition Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      R. T. Tuason is a research nurse specialist, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      A. Brooks is a scientific review officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. At the time of the study, she was a scientific program specialist, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      G. R. Wallen is chief of the Translational Biobehavioral and Health Disparities Branch, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      J. J. Barb is a bioinformatics scientist, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.