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Health-Related Preconception Factors: Adherence to Guidelines and Associations with Weight Status

  • Audrey St-Laurent
    Affiliations
    School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Claudia Savard
    Affiliations
    School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Anne-Sophie Plante
    Affiliations
    Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
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  • Marianne Gagnon
    Affiliations
    School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Julie Robitaille
    Affiliations
    School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Simone Lemieux
    Affiliations
    School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
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  • Stéphanie-May Ruchat
    Affiliations
    Department of Human Kinetics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada
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  • Anne-Sophie Morisset
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Anne-Sophie Morisset, Université Laval, 2425 rue de l’Agriculture, local 2412, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 Canada.
    Affiliations
    School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

    NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
Published:March 30, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2022.03.012

      Abstract

      Background

      Knowing the percentage of women planning a pregnancy who meet preconception dietary and physical activity (PA) guidelines and which health-related preconception factors are associated with body mass index (BMI) could help improve preconception care.

      Objectives

      In a study conducted in women who were planning to conceive, the aims were to describe and compare eating and PA habits to current guidelines, as well as to identify the factors associated with BMI.

      Design

      This was a cross-sectional study.

      Participants/setting

      From 2017 to 2020, women planning to conceive within the next year (n = 217) were recruited in the province of Québec (Canada) to participate in the Apports Nutritionnels durant la GrossessE – Cohorte Contrôle study. Among them, 184 (84.8%) were included in the analyses.

      Main outcome measures

      Women completed three (90.2%) or two (9.8%) Web-based 24-hour dietary recalls and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height as well as the presence/absence of weight/body image concerns were self-reported. Eating and PA habits were compared with dietary reference intakes and Canadian guidelines, respectively.

      Statistical analyses

      Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, eating and PA habits, as well as adherence to guidelines. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with BMI.

      Results

      On average, women were aged 30.8 ± 4.1 years and identified as White (94.0%). Most of them had weight/body image concerns (58.7%), 54.6% of whom had a normal body weight. Overall, 42.3% engaged in 150 minutes/week or more of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA and 84.8% consumed <135 g alcoholic beverages per week. Mean dietary intake was below Dietary Reference Intakes for carbohydrates, vitamins D and E, and above Dietary Reference Intakes for total fat and folic acid. Factors associated with a higher BMI were weight/body image concerns (β = 1.83; R2 = 13.0%), higher dietary protein intake (β = .05; R2 = 4.0%), lower income (β = .85; R2 = 2.9%), no folic acid supplementation (β = .83; R2 = 2.5%), spending less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (β = –.006; R2 = 2.4%), eating <2 snacks (β = .75; R2 = 2.2%), and <3 meals (β = 1.38; R2 = 1.5%) daily.

      Conclusion

      Women planning to conceive do not have optimal eating and PA behaviors. Modifiable factors associated with BMI in preconception were identified.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      A. St-Laurent are PhD candidates, School of Nutrition and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

      Biography

      C. Savard are PhD candidates, School of Nutrition and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

      Biography

      M. Gagnon is a master’s degree student, School of Nutrition and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada

      Biography

      J. Robitaille are professors, School of Nutrition and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      A.-S. Morisset are professors, School of Nutrition and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      A.-S. Plante is a research professional, Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      S. Lemieux is a professor, School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Québec-Laval University Research Center, Québec City, Québec, Canada; and NUTRISS Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      S. May-Ruchat is professor, Department of Human Kinetics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada.