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High Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Increased Health Care Utilization in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multiyear, Prospective Analysis

Published:January 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2022.01.001

      Abstract

      Background

      Dietary factors like sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption are known to influence disease course in a variety of illnesses; however, long-term outcomes are not well documented for inflammatory bowel disease.

      Objective

      Does high consumption of SSBs lead to high healthcare utilization (ie, hospitalizations and emergency department visits), inflammation, and disease severity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

      Design

      A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2015 to 2019. Patients enrolled in the discovery study cohort were followed for 3 years, whereas patients in the validation cohort were followed for 2 years. They underwent nutrition assessment and received routine care. Dietary intakes of SSBs and fiber were quantified by a validated, self-reported questionnaire.

      Participants/setting

      For the discovery study cohort, 1133 adult patients were recruited from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Digestive Disease Clinic in Pittsburgh, PA. Eligible patients had a preexisting diagnosis of Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and had at least annual follow-up at this tertiary referral center. High SSB consumption was defined as 7 or more SSBs per week. Moderate was defined as > 2 but < 7 SSBs per week. Low SSB consumption was defined as 2 or fewer SSBs per week.

      Main outcome measures

      Primary outcome was time to hospitalization and emergency department visits. Secondary outcomes assessed laboratory markers of disease severity and inflammation. Tertiary outcomes assessed time to hospitalization and emergency department visits in a subsequent independent cohort of patients.

      Statistical analysis performed

      Multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional hazards modeling

      Results

      The discovery cohort included of 1,133 adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (58% women, 70% with Chron’s disease, 30% with ulcerative colitis, median age 46 years). Low SSB consumption, moderate SSB consumption, and high SSB consumption occurred in 57%, 17%, and 26% in the discovery cohort, respectively. Among patients without active disease at enrollment, high SSB consumption was associated with decreased time to hospitalization and emergency department visits when compared with low SSB consumption (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.27; and hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13). In terms of disease severity and inflammatory biomarkers, high SSB consumption was associated with increase odds of elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (odds ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.18), elevated C-reactive protein level (odds ratio 1.60, 95% CI, 1.07-2.37), eosinophilia (odds ratio 1.88, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.335), and monocytosis (odds ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.79) when compared with low SSB consumption after adjusting for baseline differences. Lastly, the validation cohort produced similar results to our primary outcome (ie, high SSB consumption was associated with decreased time to hospitalization and emergency department visits when compared with low SSB consumption).

      Conclusions

      High SSB consumption was associated with decreased time to hospitalization and emergency department visits. Furthermore, high SSB consumption is associated with disease severity biomarkers and inflammation. Prospective studies assessing the therapeutic influence of nutrition counseling and decreased SSB consumption on long-term inflammatory bowel disease clinical course are warranted.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      Maaz Ahsan is a research scholar/resident physician, Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York, and Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      F. Koutroumpakis is a research scholar, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      C. R. Rivers is researchers, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      A. S. Wilson is researchers, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      E. Johnston is physicians, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      J. G. Hashash is physicians, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      A. Barrie is physician/professors, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

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      E. Szigethy is physician/professors, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

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      D. G. Binion is physician/professors, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

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      T. Alchoufete is a researcher and clinical dietitian, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Pittsburgh, PA.

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      D. Babichenko is a professor, School of Computing, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

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      G. Tang is a professor, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

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      K. Mollen is a surgeon and a professor, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

      Biography

      T. Hand is a professor, Department of Immunology, Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.