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Moderate Freshwater Fish Intake, but Not n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Small for Gestational Age in a Prospective Cohort of Chinese Pregnant Women

Published:October 17, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2021.10.016

      Abstract

      Background

      Although previous studies have found that maternal fish intake is associated with fetal growth, the role of freshwater fish intake remains unknown.

      Objective

      Our aim was to examine the relationships of freshwater fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake with the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in Chinese pregnant women.

      Design

      This was a prospective analysis of data from the Tongji Birth cohort in Wuhan, China, from 2018 to 2021.

      Participants/settings

      This study included 1,701 pregnant women who had completed a food frequency questionnaire dietary assessment during mid-pregnancy.

      Main outcome measures

      Intake of fish was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total intake of n-3 PUFAs was the sum of data collected from both dietary and supplemental sources of n-3 PUFAs. Birth information was extracted from medical records.

      Statistical analyses

      Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios and 95% CIs.

      Results

      The median (interquartile range) intake of freshwater fish and total n-3 PUFAs was 12.1 (4.3 to 26.4) g/d and 68.2 (24.5 to 370.0) mg/d, respectively. Moderate intake of freshwater fish was associated with reduced risk of SGA. Compared with the lowest quintile (0–3.2 g/d), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for women in the fourth quintile of freshwater fish intake (17.9 to 30.0 g/d) was 0.50 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.96). We found a nonlinear association between freshwater fish intake and SGA risk (Pnonlinearity = .027). However, maternal n-3 PUFAs intake was not significantly associated with SGA risk, either from total intake or from dietary sources alone.

      Conclusions

      Moderate freshwater fish intake during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of SGA in a Chinese population. This finding provides supportive evidence for freshwater fish intake during pregnancy, particularly for the inland areas of developing countries.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      R. Zhao is a PhD candidate and public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      Q. Gao is a public health physician, Department of Public Health, Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, China.

      Biography

      T. Xiong is a public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      J. Zhou is a PhD candidate and public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      S. Wang is a public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      Z. Zhang is a PhD candidate and public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      Y. Du is a public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      H. Xie is a public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      X. Chen is a public health physician, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      J. Shen is an attending physician, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      W. Han is an associate chief physician, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      X. Yang is a professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

      Biography

      L. Hao is a professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.