Nutrition Interventions in Pediatric Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: An Evidence Analysis Center Scoping Review

Published:April 14, 2021DOI:


      The objective of this scoping review was to identify and characterize studies examining the effect of nutrition management interventions and effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy to improve nutrition-related outcomes in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An in-depth electronic search was conducted by a medical librarian in six databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science Core Collection. The literature search resulted in 5,122 records, and five records were identified through hand search. Of these 5,127 records, 22 articles and eight systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. An equal number of the studies were experimental (ie, randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials, or noncontrolled trials) (n = 11) and observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) (n = 11) with the remaining studies being systematic reviews/meta-analyses (n = 8). Most of these studies were conducted in United States or Europe. Based on this scoping review, the majority of studies focus on either carbohydrate counting or evaluation of dietary intake patterns with little emphasis on tailored patient education/counseling services specifically designed to meet a young child’s or his/her family's individual needs. Indeed, only four studies in this scoping review used dietary counseling and/or medical nutrition therapy. As such, there remains a significant gap in the literature as it relates to the efficacy and long-term management implications of tailored nutrition interventions in young children with type 1 diabetes.
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      D. Handu is a senior scientific director, Evidence Analysis Center, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL.


      M. Piotrowski is a lead research analyst, Evidence Analysis Center, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, and a registered nurse, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.