Advertisement

Structural Barriers Influencing Food Insecurity, Malnutrition, and Health Among Latinas During and After COVID-19: Considerations and Recommendations

Published:February 07, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2021.01.005
      The Continuing Professional Education (CPE) quiz for this article is available for free to Academy members through the MyCDRGo app (available for iOS and Android devices) and through www.jandonline.org (click on “CPE” in the menu and then “Academy Journal CPE Articles”). Log in with your Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics or Commission on Dietetic Registration username and password, click “Journal Article Quiz” on the next page, then click the “Additional Journal CPE quizzes” button to view a list of available quizzes. Non-members may take CPE quizzes by sending a request to [email protected] . There is a $45 fee per quiz (includes quiz and copy of article) for non-members. CPE quizzes are valid for 3 years after the issue date in which the articles are published.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Coleman-Jensen A.
        • Rabbitt M.P.
        • Gregory C.A.
        • Measurement
        US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Published 2020. Accessed January 4, 2021.
        • Berkowitz S.A.
        • Gao X.
        • Tucker K.L.
        Food-insecure dietary patterns are associated with poor longitudinal glycemic control in diabetes: Results from the Boston Puerto Rican Health study.
        Diabetes Care. 2014; 37: 2587-2592
        • Morales M.E.
        • Berkowitz S.A.
        The relationship between food insecurity, dietary patterns, and obesity.
        Curr Nutr Rep. 2016; 5: 54-60
        • Seligman H.K.
        • Jacobs E.A.
        • López A.
        • Tschann J.
        • Fernandez A.
        Food insecurity and glycemic control among low-income patients with type 2 diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 2012; 35: 233-238
        • Allen N.L.
        • Becerra B.J.
        • Becerra M.B.
        Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans.
        Ethn Health. 2018; 23: 511-520
        • Leung C.W.
        • Epel E.S.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Laraia B.A.
        Household food insecurity is positively associated with depression among low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants and income-eligible nonparticipants.
        J Nutr. 2015; 145: 622-627
        • Seligman H.K.
        • Laraia B.A.
        • Kushel M.B.
        Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease among low-income NHANES participants.
        J Nutr. 2010; 140: 304-310
        • Fitzgerald N.
        • Hromi-Fiedler A.
        • Segura-Pérez S.
        • Pérez-Escamilla R.
        Food insecurity is related to increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Latinas.
        Ethn Dis. 2011; 21: 328-334
        • Banerjee S.
        • Radak T.
        • Khubchandani J.
        • Dunn P.
        Food insecurity and mortality in American adults: Results from the NHANES-linked mortality study.
        Health Promot Pract. 2021; 22: 204-214
        • Sun Y.
        • Liu B.
        • Rong S.
        • et al.
        Food insecurity is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9: e014629
        • Niles M.T.
        • Bertmann F.
        • Belarmino E.H.
        • Wentworth T.
        • Biehl E.
        • Neff R.
        The early food insecurity impacts of COVID-19.
        Nutrients. 2020; 12: 2096
        • Fitzpatrick K.M.
        • Harris C.
        • Drawve G.
        Assessing U.S. Food Insecurity in the United States During COVID-19 Pandemic.
        University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR2020
        • Schanzenbach D.
        • Pitts A.
        Food Insecurity in the Census Household Pulse Survey Data Tables.
        Northwestern University Institute for Policy Research, Chicago, IL2020
        • Noe-Bustamante L.
        • Lopez M.H.
        • Krogstad J.M.
        U.S. Hispanic population surpassed 60 million in 2019, but growth has slowed. Pew Research Center. Published 2020. Updated July 7, 2020. Accessed September 5, 2020.
        • Figueroa J.F.
        • Wadhera R.K.
        • Lee D.
        • Yeh R.W.
        • Sommers B.D.
        Community-level factors associated with racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 rates in Massachusetts.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2020; 39: 1984-1992
        • Gould E.
        • Perez D.
        • Wilson V.
        Latinx Workers—Particularly Women—Face Devastating Job Losses in the COVID-19 Recession.
        Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC2020
      1. Blendon RJ, Benson JM, Findling MG, et al. The Impact of Coronavirus on Households in Major U.S. Cities. NPR, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; September 2020.

        • Ewing-Nelson C.
        Four times more women than men dropped out of the labor force in September. National Women's Law Center. Published 2020. Accessed November 26, 2020.
        • Tucker J.
        • Ewing-Nelson C.
        Black, non-Hispanic women and Latinas are facing severe COVID-19 impact. National Women’s Law Center. Published 2020. Accessed December 1, 2020.
        • Wolfson J.A.
        • Leung C.W.
        Food insecurity and COVID-19: Disparities in early effects for US adults.
        Nutrients. 2020; 12: 1648
        • Bernstein H.
        • González J.
        • Gonzalez D.
        • Jagannath J.
        Immigrant-Serving Organizations’ Perspectives on the COVID-19 Crisis.
        Urban Institute, Washington, DC2020
        • Leddy A.M.
        • Weiser S.D.
        • Palar K.
        • Seligman H.
        A conceptual model for understanding the rapid COVID-19-related increase in food insecurity and its impact on health and healthcare.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2020; 112: 1162-1169
        • Franklin B.
        • Jones A.
        • Love D.
        • Puckett S.
        • Macklin J.
        • White-Means S.
        Exploring mediators of food insecurity and obesity: A review of recent literature.
        J Community Health. 2012; 37: 253-264
        • Townsend M.S.
        • Peerson J.
        • Love B.
        • Achterberg C.
        • Murphy S.P.
        Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women.
        J Nutr. 2001; 131: 1738-1745
        • Larson N.I.
        • Story M.T.
        Food insecurity and weight status among U.S. children and families: A review of the literature.
        Am J Prev Med. 2011; 40: 166-173
        • Frongillo E.A.
        • Bernal J.
        Understanding the coexistence of food insecurity and obesity.
        Curr Pediatr Rep. 2014; 2: 284-290
        • Adams E.J.
        • Grummer-Strawn L.
        • Chavez G.
        Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of obesity in California women.
        J Nutr. 2003; 133: 1070-1074
        • Leung C.W.
        • Williams D.R.
        • Villamor E.
        Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.
        Public Health Nutr. 2012; 15: 2228-2236
        • Hernandez D.C.
        • Reesor L.M.
        • Murillo R.
        Food insecurity and adult overweight/obesity: Gender and race/ethnic disparities.
        Appetite. 2017; 117: 373-378
        • Torrez D.J.
        The role of gender and race in the older Latinas's economic well-being.
        Race Gend Cl. 1997; 4: 73-89
        • Himmelstein K.E.W.
        • Venkataramani A.S.
        Economic vulnerability among US female health care workers: Potential impact of a $15-per-hour minimum wage.
        Am J Public Health. 2019; 109: 198-205
        • Paradies Y.
        • Ben J.
        • Denson N.
        • et al.
        Racism as a determinant of health: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0138511
        • Phojanakong P.
        • Brown Weida E.
        • Grimaldi G.
        • Lê-Scherban F.
        • Chilton M.
        Experiences of racial and ethnic discrimination are associated with food insecurity and poor health.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16: 4369
        • Derose K.P.
        • Payán D.D.
        • Fulcar M.A.
        • et al.
        Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0181568
        • Holben D.H.
        • Marshall M.B.
        Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Food insecurity in the United States.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117: 1991-2002
        • Chapman-Novakofski K.
        • Diaz Rios L.K.
        Education and counseling: Behavioral change.
        in: Raymond J. Morrow K. Mahan L. Krause and Mahan’s Food & The Nutrition Care. 15th ed. Elsevier, St. Louis, MO2021
        • Lucan S.C.
        Concerning limitations of food-environment research: A narrative review and commentary framed around obesity and diet-related diseases in youth.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015; 115: 205-212
        • Payán D.D.
        • Derose K.P.
        • Flórez K.R.
        • Branch C.A.
        • Williams M.V.
        The food environment in 3 neighborhoods in South Los Angeles, California: Access, availability, quality, and marketing practices.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2020; 17: E61
        • Lowery B.
        • Sloane D.
        • Payán D.
        • Illum J.
        • Lewis L.
        Do farmers’ markets increase access to healthy foods for all communities? Comparing markets in 24 neighborhoods in Los Angeles.
        J Am Plan Assoc. 2016; 82: 252-266
        • Hendrickson D.
        • Smith C.
        • Eikenberry N.
        Fruit and vegetable access in four low-income food deserts communities in Minnesota.
        Agric Human Values. 2006; 23: 371-383
        • Morello P.
        The first months of the food bank response to COVID, by the numbers. Feeding America. Published 2020. Updated July 21, 2020. Accessed September 5, 2020.
        • Simmet A.
        • Depa J.
        • Tinnemann P.
        • Stroebele-Benschop N.
        The nutritional quality of food provided from food pantries: A systematic review of existing literature.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117: 577-588
        • Wright B.N.
        • Tooze J.A.
        • Bailey R.L.
        • et al.
        Dietary quality and usual intake of underconsumed nutrients and related food groups differ by food security status for rural, Midwestern food pantry clients.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020; 120: 1457-1468
        • Adams E.L.
        • Caccavale L.J.
        • Smith D.
        • Bean M.K.
        Food insecurity, the home food environment, and parent feeding practices in the era of COVID-19.
        Obesity. 2020; 28: 2056-2063
        • Ramírez A.S.
        • Golash-Boza T.
        • Unger J.B.
        • Baezconde-Garbanati L.
        Questioning the dietary acculturation paradox: A mixed-methods study of the relationship between food and ethnic identity in a group of Mexican-American women.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018; 118: 431-439
        • Ramirez A.S.
        • Diaz Rios L.K.
        • Valdez Z.
        • Estrada E.
        • Ruiz A.
        Bringing produce to the people: Implementing a social marketing food access intervention in rural food deserts.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017; 49: 166-174.e161
        • Dhurandhar E.J.
        The food-insecurity obesity paradox: A resource scarcity hypothesis.
        Physiol Behav. 2016; 162: 88-92
        • Payán D.D.
        • Sloane D.C.
        • Illum J.
        • Farris T.
        • Lewis L.B.
        Perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and school lunch meals among adolescents: A qualitative study.
        Am J Health Behav. 2017; 41: 661-669
        • Lucan S.C.
        • Maroko A.R.
        • Sanon O.C.
        • Schechter C.B.
        Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising in subway stations: Targeted marketing, vulnerable groups, dietary intake, and poor health.
        J Urban Health. 2017; 94: 220-232
        • Moran A.J.
        • Musicus A.
        • Gorski Findling M.T.
        • et al.
        Increases in sugary drink marketing during Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefit issuance in New York.
        Am J Prev Med. 2018; 55: 55-62
        • Dowling E.A.
        • Roberts C.
        • Adjoian T.
        • Farley S.M.
        • Dannefer R.
        Disparities in sugary drink advertising on New York City streets.
        Am J Prev Med. 2020; 58: e87-e95
        • Handu D.
        • Moloney L.
        • Rozga M.
        • Cheng F.
        Malnutrition care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Considerations for registered dietitian nutritionists evidence analysis center.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020;
        • US Bureau of Labor Statistics
        Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2018. US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Published 2019. Accessed December 1, 2020.
        • Melgar-Quiñonez H.
        • Kaiser L.L.
        • Martin A.C.
        • Metz D.
        • Olivares A.
        Inseguridad alimentaria en latinos de California: Observaciones de grupos focales.
        Salud Publica Mex. 2003; 45: 198-205
        • Mabli J.
        • Ohls J.
        Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation is associated with an increase in household food security in a national evaluation.
        J Nutr. 2015; 145: 344-351
        • Bleich S.N.
        • Moran A.J.
        • Vercammen K.A.
        • et al.
        Strengthening the public health impacts of the supplemental nutrition assistance program through policy.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 2020; 41: 453-480
        • Kennedy E.
        • Guthrie J.F.
        Nutrition assistance programs: Cause or solution to obesity.
        Curr Obes Rep. 2016; 5: 176-183
      2. Families First Coronavirus Response Act, Public Law No: 116-127, 187–188, §2301-2302 (2020).

        • USDA
        USDA Increases Monthly SNAP Benefits by 40%. USDA. Published 2020. Accessed November 24, 2020.
      3. Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, Public Law No: 116-136, 508 (2020).

        • Kaiser L.
        Why do low-income women not use food stamps? Findings from the California Women’s Health Survey.
        Public Health Nutr. 2008; 11: 1288-1295
        • Feeding America
        When the Pantry Is Bare: Emergency Food Assistance and Hispanic Children.
        Feeding America, Chicago, IL2010
        • Philbin M.M.
        • Flake M.
        • Hatzenbuehler M.L.
        • Hirsch J.S.
        State-level immigration and immigrant-focused policies as drivers of Latino health disparities in the United States.
        Soc Sci Med. 2018; 199: 29-38
        • McLoughlin G.M.
        • McCarthy J.A.
        • McGuirt J.T.
        • Singleton C.R.
        • Dunn C.G.
        • Gadhoke P.
        Addressing food insecurity through a health equity lens: A case study of large urban school districts during the COVID-19 pandemic.
        J Urban Health. 2020; 97: 759-775
        • Algert S.J.
        • Reibel M.
        • Renvall M.J.
        Barriers to participation in the food stamp program among food pantry clients in Los Angeles.
        Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 807-809
        • Bovell-Ammon A.
        • Cuba S.E.
        • Coleman S.
        • et al.
        Trends in food insecurity and SNAP participation among immigrant families U.S.-born young children.
        Children. 2019; 6: 55
        • Bleich S.N.
        • Fleischhacker S.
        Hunger or deportation: Implications of the Trump administration’s proposed public charge rule.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2019; 51: 505-509
        • Rodriguez N.
        • Paredes C.L.
        • Hagan J.
        Fear of immigration enforcement among older Latino immigrants in the United States.
        J Aging Health. 2017; 29: 986-1014
        • Vargas E.D.
        Immigration enforcement and mixed-status families: The effects of risk of deportation on Medicaid use.
        Child Youth Serv Rev. 2015; 57: 83-89
        • Bernstein H.
        • Gonzalez D.
        • Karpman M.
        • Zuckerman S.
        Adults in Immigrant Families Report Avoiding Routine Activities Because of Immigration Concerns.
        Urban Institute, Washington, DC2019
        • Young M.-E.D.T.
        • Wallace S.P.
        Included, but deportable: A new public health approach to policies that criminalize and integrate immigrants.
        Am J Public Health. 2019; 109: 1171-1176
        • Valdez Z.
        • Ramírez A.S.
        • Estrada E.
        • Grassi K.
        • Nathan S.
        Community perspectives on access to and availability of healthy food in rural, low-resource, Latino communities.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2016; 13: E170
        • Ramirez A.S.
        • Graff K.
        • Nelson D.
        • et al.
        Who seeks Cita Con El Doctor? Twelve years of Spanish-language radio program targeting U.S. Latinos.
        Health Educ Behav. 2015; 42: 611-620
        • Cuan-Baltazar J.Y.
        • Muñoz-Perez M.J.
        • Robledo-Vega C.
        • Pérez-Zepeda M.F.
        • Soto-Vega E.
        Misinformation of COVID-19 on the internet: Infodemiology study.
        JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020; 6: e18444
        • Ramírez A.S.
        • Arellano Carmona K.
        Beyond fatalism: Information overload as a mechanism to understand health disparities.
        Soc Sci Med. 2018; 219: 11-18
        • Swire-Thompson B.
        • Lazer D.
        Public health and online misinformation: Challenges and recommendations.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 2020; 41: 433-451
        • Southwell BG
        Social Networks and Popular Understanding of Science and Health: Sharing Disparities.
        Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD2013
        • Kinsey E.W.
        • Kinsey D.
        • Rundle A.G.
        COVID-19 and food insecurity: An uneven patchwork of responses.
        J Urban Health. 2020; 97: 332-335
        • Olson C.M.
        Food insecurity in women: a recipe for unhealthy trade-offs.
        Top Clin Nutr. 2005; 20: 321-328
        • Radimer K.L.
        • Olson C.M.
        • Greene J.C.
        • Campbell C.C.
        • Habicht J.-P.
        Understanding hunger and developing indicators to assess it in women and children.
        J Nutr Educ. 1992; 24: 36S-44S
        • McIntyre L.
        • Glanville N.T.
        • Raine K.D.
        • Dayle J.B.
        • Anderson B.
        • Battaglia N.
        Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children?.
        CMAJ. 2003; 168: 686-691
        • Martin M.A.
        • Lippert A.M.
        Feeding her children, but risking her health: The intersection of gender, household food insecurity and obesity.
        Soc Sci Med. 2012; 74: 1754-1764
        • Myers C.A.
        Food insecurity and psychological distress: A review of the recent literature.
        Curr Nutr Rep. 2020; 9: 107-118
        • Martin M.S.
        • Maddocks E.
        • Chen Y.
        • Gilman S.E.
        • Colman I.
        Food insecurity and mental illness: Disproportionate impacts in the context of perceived stress and social isolation.
        Public Health. 2016; 132: 86-91
        • López-Cepero A.
        • Frisard C.
        • Bey G.
        • Lemon S.C.
        • Rosal M.C.
        Association between food insecurity and emotional eating in Latinos and the mediating role of perceived stress.
        Public Health Nutr. 2020; 23: 642-648
        • Rasmusson G.
        • Lydecker J.A.
        • Coffino J.A.
        • White M.A.
        • Grilo C.M.
        Household food insecurity is associated with binge-eating disorder and obesity.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2018; 52: 28-35
        • López-Cepero A.
        • Frisard C.
        • Lemon S.C.
        • Rosal M.C.
        Emotional eating mediates the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in Latina women.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2020; 52: 995-1000
        • Coates J.
        • Frongillo E.A.
        • Rogers B.L.
        • Webb P.
        • Wilde P.E.
        • Houser R.
        Commonalities in the experience of household food insecurity across cultures: What are measures missing?.
        J Nutr. 2006; 136: 1438s-1448s
        • Dinour L.M.
        • Bergen D.
        • Yeh M.C.
        The food insecurity-obesity paradox: A review of the literature and the role food stamps may play.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 1952-1961
        • Spinosa J.
        • Christiansen P.
        • Dickson J.M.
        • Lorenzetti V.
        • Hardman C.A.
        From socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity: The mediating role of psychological distress and emotional eating.
        Obesity. 2019; 27: 559-564
        • Laran J.
        • Salerno A.
        Life-history strategy, food choice, and caloric consumption.
        Psychol Sci. 2013; 24: 167-173
        • Bratanova B.
        • Loughnan S.
        • Klein O.
        • Claassen A.
        • Wood R.
        Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.
        Appetite. 2016; 100: 162-171
        • Peng W.
        • Dernini S.
        • Berry E.M.
        Coping with food insecurity using the sociotype ecological framework.
        Front Nutr. 2018; 5: 107
        • Nettle D.
        • Bateson M.
        Food-insecure women eat a less diverse diet in a more temporally variable way: Evidence from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-4.
        J Obes. 2019; 2019: 1-9
        • McGinty E.E.
        • Presskreischer R.
        • Han H.
        • Barry C.L.
        Psychological distress and loneliness reported by US adults in 2018 and April 2020.
        JAMA. 2020; 324: 93-94
        • Hager E.R.
        • Quigg A.M.
        • Black M.M.
        • et al.
        Development and validity of a 2-item screen to identify families at risk for food insecurity.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: e26-e32
        • Coleman-Jensen A.
        • Rabbitt M.P.
        • Gregory C.A.
        Survey tools. US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Published 2020. Accessed September 15, 2019.
        • Collin-Vézina D.
        • Brend D.
        • Beeman I.
        When it counts the most: Trauma-informed care and the COVID-19 global pandemic.
        Dev Child Welf. 2020; 2: 172-179
        • Food Research & Action Center (FRAC)
        State P-EBT Programs Map. FRAC. Published 2020. Accessed December 1, 2020.

      Biography

      D. D. Payán is an assistant professor of health policy, Department of Public Health, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced (UC Merced), Merced.

      Biography

      L. K. Díaz Rios is a cooperative extension nutrition specialist, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Public Health, UC Merced, Merced.

      Biography

      A. S. Ramírez is an associate professor of public health communication, Department of Public Health, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced (UC Merced), Merced.

      Biography

      M.-E.D.T. Young is an assistant professor of public health, Department of Public Health, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced (UC Merced), Merced.