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Nutrition Interventions in Low-Income Rural and Urban Retail Environments: A Systematic Review

Open AccessPublished:February 13, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.12.018

      Abstract

      Background

      Nutrition interventions promoting healthy food choices aim to address health challenges of residents in low-income environments. Research about the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in low-income populations is limited, particularly for those in rural areas. Behavioral economics (BE) strategies demonstrate effectiveness for improving eating behaviors in some settings. However, the efficacy of BE interventions in retail food stores serving low-income populations residing in rural and urban geographies is nascent.

      Objective

      This systematic literature review aims to identify and compare nutrition interventions implemented in rural and urban low-income retail food stores, including BE strategies when applied.

      Methods

      This review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Reviewers searched five databases for peer-reviewed publications from October 2010 to October 2019. Included studies implemented a nutrition intervention in low-income retail food stores and provided a quantitative outcome evaluation with results separated by rural and urban geography. BE interventions were analyzed based on the MINDSPACE framework for behavior change.

      Results

      Forty-six separate publications (n = 20 rural, n = 26 urban) in the United States, Canada, Europe, New Zealand, and Australia were included. Researchers independently rated publications as low risk of bias (n = 4), moderate (n = 18), or high risk of bias (n = 24) using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive outcomes for customer purchases, store sales, or participant intake of targeted healthy foods. Overall, most effective interventions included point-of-purchase signage (n = 16) and product placement strategies (n = 4 urban). Rural studies included financial incentives combined with participant education (n = 2) and incorporated culturally appropriate messengers and/or symbols (n = 5) to improve healthy food purchases and intake.

      Conclusions

      Improved research quality and tailored evidence-based interventions, including BE strategies, are necessary in retail food environments to promote healthy eating behaviors in low-income populations.

      Keywords

      Research Question: What are the most effective nutrition interventions in low-income rural and urban retail environments?
      Key Findings: Effective interventions (n = 16) included elements designed to focus the customer’s attention on promoted foods; eg, distinctive shelf labels and placement of targeted products at eye level or in prominent areas of the store. In rural stores, price discounts combined with participant education (n = 2) improved the sales of targeted healthy foods. Rural studies included culturally appropriate messengers and/or symbols (n = 5) in successful nutrition interventions; for example, local actors promoted nutrition interventions in radio and television advertisements.
      Low-income individuals are at increased risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, cancer, diabetes, stroke, and obesity.
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      An integrative literature review of small food store research across urban and rural communities in the U.S.
      Some of the barriers to eating healthy foods are unique to geographical location. For example, in rural areas, limited quantity, high prices, low quality, and lack of produce variety are barriers to purchasing and ultimately consuming fruit and vegetables, a marker of dietary quality.
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      Characterizing rural food access in remote areas.
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      Perceptions of the food environment and access 3 among predominantly black low-income residents 4 of rural Louisiana communities.
      In urban communities, residents report challenges making healthy selections among a vast array of unhealthy choices, as well as frequently purchasing energy-dense nutrient poor (EDNP) foods.
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      • Harden S.M.
      • Yaroch A.L.
      An integrative literature review of small food store research across urban and rural communities in the U.S.
      Food retail interventions at the community level may address the nutrition challenges of rural and urban residents by enhancing the local food environment and thus improving healthful food access and food choices.
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      A social-ecological review of the rural versus urban obesity disparity.
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      There is limited literature regarding effective nutrition interventions in retail grocery stores that serve the low-income population, particularly for those residing in rural environments.
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      • Harden S.M.
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      An integrative literature review of small food store research across urban and rural communities in the U.S.
      ,
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      Interventions in small food stores to change the food environment, improve diet, and reduce risk of chronic disease.
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      Corner store inventories, purchases, and strategies for intervention: a review of the literature.
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      Nutrition interventions at point-of-sale to encourage healthier food purchasing: a systematic review.
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      • Jensen J.D.
      What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? A systematic review.
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      • Bianchi F.
      • Piernas C.
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      Grocery store interventions to change food purchasing behaviors: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
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      Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity an integrative review.
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      • Sacks G.
      A systematic review of the effectiveness of supermarket-based interventions involving product, promotion, or place on the healthiness of consumer purchases.
      Gittelsohn and colleagues
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Rowan M.
      • Gadhoke P.
      Interventions in small food stores to change the food environment, improve diet, and reduce risk of chronic disease.
      reviewed studies in small food stores that targeted low-income populations, including some rural settings (n = 5); yet, a substantial number of the publications were from the gray literature. All studies in the review reported increases in healthy food availability. In 2016, Adam and Jensen
      • Adam A.
      • Jensen J.D.
      What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? A systematic review.
      reviewed publications set primarily in grocery stores for minority or urban low-income populations, and they reported price incentives in combination with nutrition information and readily available healthy food had positive effects on healthy food purchases. A recent review that included rural studies (n = 4) reported mixed effects of food stocking, product placement, and taste tests on customer purchases of targeted foods.
      • Hartmann-Boyce J.
      • Bianchi F.
      • Piernas C.
      • et al.
      Grocery store interventions to change food purchasing behaviors: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
      Pinard and colleagues
      • Pinard C.A.
      • Byker Shanks C.
      • Harden S.M.
      • Yaroch A.L.
      An integrative literature review of small food store research across urban and rural communities in the U.S.
      noted a lack of publications (n = 6) and randomized controlled trials (RCT) in rural small stores and identified the need to research the similarities and differences between rural and urban store environments to inform standardized practices.
      Researchers use behavioral economics (BE) interventions to target changes in automatic behaviors by altering the store environment where food selection occurs, ie, the choice environment. For example, substituting healthier foods for unhealthy foods at checkout aims to encourage unplanned purchases of healthier foods. BE interventions impede choices made by impulse and habit, so BE strategies are not attenuated by education and income status.
      • Vlaev I.
      • King D.
      • Dolan P.
      • Darzi A.
      The theory and practice of “nudging”: changing health behaviors.
      BE strategies are shown to be effective for improving healthy food intake in dining settings
      • Cadario R.
      • Chandon P.
      Which healthy eating nudges work best? a meta-analysis of field experiments.
      ; however, the efficacy of BE interventions in retail food stores serving low-income populations residing in unique rural and urban geographies is not known.
      • Cadario R.
      • Chandon P.
      Which healthy eating nudges work best? a meta-analysis of field experiments.
      • Vecchio R.
      • Cavallo C.
      Increasing healthy food choices through nudges: a systematic review.
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      • Thomas S.
      The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      • Broers V.J.V.
      • De Breucker C.
      • Van den Broucke S.
      • Luminet O.
      A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of nudging to increase fruit and vegetable choice.
      • Cecchini M.
      • Warin L.
      Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.
      • Houghtaling B.
      • Serrano E.L.
      • Kraak V.I.
      • Harden S.M.
      • Davis G.C.
      • Misyak S.A.
      A systematic review of factors that influence food store owner and manager decision making and ability or willingness to use choice architecture and marketing mix strategies to encourage healthy consumer purchases in the United States, 2005-2017.
      Based on the Nudge Theory
      • Thaler R.
      • Sunstein C.
      Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happines.
      and research by BE scientists, the MINDSPACE framework for behavior change provides a mnemonic, MINDSPACE, which identifies nine influential drivers of automatic behavior: messenger, incentives, norms, defaults, salience, priming, affect, commitment, and ego.
      • Dolan P.
      • Hallsworth M.
      • Halpern D.
      • King D.
      • Metcalfe R.
      • Vlaev I.
      Influencing behaviour: the mindspace way.
      In this review, the messenger is a trusted communicator selected to promote the nutrition interventions. Financial incentives stimulate healthy food purchases by eliciting fear that missed discounts will result in monetary losses. Norms rely on social expectations of a group to influence individual purchasing behavior. A default is the option that is offered, such as the portion size of a prepared food for sale. Salience is the use of attention-grabbing interventions, such as placing healthy foods at eye level. Priming uses prompts or cues; for example, floor decals guide the customer to shop in a specific store area. Affect elements, such as a cultural symbols, provoke an emotional response to motivate healthy food choices. When a participant accepts a store giveaway, it may induce a commitment to make a healthy food purchase. Skill development builds ego strength which may increase confidence to improve eating behaviors. This systematic literature review aims to identify and compare nutrition interventions implemented in rural and urban low-income retail food stores, including BE strategies when applied.

      Methods

      This review is reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines.
      • Liberati A.
      • Altman D.G.
      • Tetzlaff J.
      • et al.
      The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.
      The protocol for this review is registered with the International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number: CRD 42019114115).

      Eligibility Criteria

      Studies in retail stores located in a low-income rural or urban community were included in the case that they provided quantitative data regarding the outcome(s) of a retail nutrition intervention in the presence of a comparator or not. Studies were excluded in the case that the store was not a physical retail store, lacked data analysis separated by rural and urban geographic location, or omitted a nutrition intervention. Studies regarding discounts or vouchers in conjunction with a nutrition intervention were included. Interventions offering solely financial incentives were beyond the scope of this review. Full-text, English-language articles published between October 1, 2010, and October 31, 2019, were included.

      Search Strategy

      A librarian provided expertise regarding relevant terms and databases for the search strategy. Search terms included corner store, grocery store, store, healthy, food, nutrition promotion, point of purchase, low socioeconomic, rural, poor, and purchase. Medical subject heading terms included health promotion, rural population, and (low) income. Terms consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, such as increase whole grains, increase fruit and vegetables, and decrease sugar-sweetened beverages were included. One author searched for peer-reviewed literature on Academic Search Complete, Agricultural Online Access, PubMed, Essential Reference Tool for Economics Literature, and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. Hand searching of reference lists from previous literature review publications and retrieved articles was performed to augment the database searches.
      One author conducted a gray literature search of the Proquest database and websites, including the Healthy Corner Store Initiative, US Department of Agriculture, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and Google for articles between October 2010 and October 2019. One author notified organizations about the inclusion criteria via e-mail, including The Food Trust, researchers, and government agencies with healthy retail programs. Gray literature was obtained from a tier 1 or tier 2 source, and the inclusion criteria were the same as peer-reviewed publications.
      • Adams R.J.
      • Smart P.
      • Huff A.S.
      Shades of grey: guidelines for working with the grey literature in systematic reviews for management and organizational studies.
      Both authors conducted a full-text review after screening the gray literature and agreed on the included articles. Gray literature is summarized in the results section.

      Study Selection and Data Extraction

      One author screened each peer-reviewed publication by title and abstract for inclusion in the full-text screening. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text publication and agreed on those for inclusion in the review. One author developed a data extraction form, and two faculty and two graduate students in the Nutrition and Food Science Department at Louisiana State University reviewed it for completeness. Reviewers piloted the data extraction form using five diverse studies, and one author revised it multiple times. One author completed the data extraction by hand and then entered the data into three spreadsheets (one for publication characteristics, one for categorization into the MINDSPACE framework, and one for store-directed interventions), and a second author verified the information. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus and contacting study authors as needed.
      One author extracted the following data from each publication: program name and location, including geographical classification as rural, remote, or urban; description of study participants (ie, age, number in each group, and selection method); store number and type; research aim; study design; intervention components that were classified into MINDSPACE elements for analysis; store-directed interventions (eg, type; length; and content of training for owner, manager, and staff; incentives for store owner or manager; equipment; and improvements to store interior or exterior); outcome measures and targeted foods; findings; and participant education. Store-directed interventions consisted of in-store strategies such as training staff or providing equipment and strategies which were directed to suppliers to promote targeted foods in the store. Store-directed interventions are important to food safety, food marketing, customer perception of store quality, and sales. For example, adequate refrigeration is required to stock a variety of healthy foods, including dairy products and produce.

      Methodological Quality Assessment

      Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of peer-reviewed studies using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (QATQS) by the Effective Public Health Practice Project.
      Effective Public Health Practice Project
      Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies.
      This included the assessment of selection bias, study design, confounders, blinding, data collection methods, withdrawals and dropouts, intervention integrity, and analysis.
      Effective Public Health Practice Project
      Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies.
      Sections were graded using the QATQS Dictionary, which results in a weak (high risk of bias), moderate (medium risk of bias), or strong (low risk of bias) score for each criteria and a global quality score based on the number of individual weak scores for the publication. Any disagreements were agreed on through consensus. Studies that received an overall weak quality score (ie, high risk of bias) remained in the review. The QATQS was used to analyze study effects and to assess the cumulative score relative to existing reviews.

      Results

      Of the 638 peer-reviewed records initially screened, 124 were selected for full-text review to determine eligibility resulting in the inclusion of 46 publications distinctly separated by rural and urban geography (n = 20 rural, n = 26 urban) (Figure 1). The publications were obtained through database searching (n = 5 rural, n = 16 urban), hand searching (n = 13 rural, n = 10 urban), and experts in the field (n = 2 rural). Studies were located in Australia (n = 3), Canada (n = 5), Denmark (n = 2), France (n = 1), New Zealand (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 1), and the United States (n = 33, including 10 in Baltimore, MD). There were three programs that published more than one study: Healthy Foods North (HFN),
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK),
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      and Get Healthy Philly.
      • Cavanaugh E.
      • Green S.
      • Mallya G.
      • Tierney A.
      • Brensinger C.
      • Glanz K.
      Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.
      ,
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      Six studies occurred in remote locations, eg, remote indigenous Australia
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      ,
      • Butler R.
      • Tapsell L.
      • Lyons-Wall P.
      Trends in purchasing patterns of sugar-sweetened water-based beverages in a remote Aboriginal community store following the implementation of a community-developed store nutrition policy.
      and the Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Canada,
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      and these were analyzed with the rural studies. Study duration ranged from 2 days
      • Gustafson C.R.
      • Kent R.
      • Prate M.R.
      Retail-based healthy food point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) increase healthy food choices in a rural, low-income, minority community.
      to 3 years.
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      Rural sample sizes ranged from 136 women of childbearing age
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      to 1,637 interview participants,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      whereas urban sample sizes ranged from 148
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      to 14,620 participants.
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      The mean age for adults in the studies that reported it was 43.3 years. Ages ranged from children categorized as 5 to 12 years old
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      to one 89-year old in a rural study.
      • Hardin-Fanning F.
      • Gokun Y.
      Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.
      Six of the publications included children and/or adolescents,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      ,
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Herring B.J.
      • Flagg D.D.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information.
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Barry C.L.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      • Herring B.J.
      Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how Black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist.
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      and female subjects comprised the majority of participants except in one urban corner store initiative.
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow diagram of the literature search and study selection for the systematic review on nutrition interventions in low-income rural and urban retail environments. Agricola = Agricultural Online Access. Econolit = Essential Reference Tool for Economics Literature. CINAHL = Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature.
      Store types were diverse, including cooperative-owned food stores in some rural and remote areas.
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      ,
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      ,
      • Butler R.
      • Tapsell L.
      • Lyons-Wall P.
      Trends in purchasing patterns of sugar-sweetened water-based beverages in a remote Aboriginal community store following the implementation of a community-developed store nutrition policy.
      ,
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Christensen U.
      • Glumer C.
      • et al.
      Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout—a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? A study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.
      Types of retail stores are discussed in Table 1 with other pertinent study data, such as program name, location, store type and quantity, description of sample, intervention(s), key findings, and the risk of bias score. Nutrition and store outcomes are included in Figure 2.
      Table 1Key characteristics of studies and risk of bias scores using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies
      Effective Public Health Practice Project
      Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies.
      in the systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in low-income rural and urban retail environments (listed by rural/urban location in alphabetical order)
      Reference and yearProgram nameCountryStore number and typeStudy designDescription of sampleIntervention componentsKey findingsRisk of bias score
      Rural
      Ayala and colleagues, 2013
      • Ayala G.X.
      • Baquero B.
      • Laraia B.A.
      • Ji M.
      • Linnan L.
      Efficacy of a store-based environmental change intervention compared with a delayed treatment control condition on store customers’ intake of fruits and vegetables.
      Healthy Life: Today and TomorrowUnited StatesN = 4; tiendasDelayed treatment-controlled studyn = 179 customers (baseline) and n = 111 adult (post) customers recently immigrated from Mexico to Central North CarolinaEmployee and manager training in Spanish; food marketing campaign with POP
      POP = point of purchase.
      ; food demonstrations; audio novella; environmental changes
      Positive trend for consuming additional fruits and vegetables (P ≤ 0.06). Decreased self-efficacy for consuming more fruits (P ≤ 0.01) and vegetables (P ≤ 0.06)Moderate
      Bains and colleagues, 2014
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      Healthy Foods NorthCanadaN = 10; 5 food stores, 3 convenience stores, and 2 control stores. (includes co-op stores)Quasi-experimentalN = 136 women of child-bearing age recruited from 3 communities in Nunavut and 3 communities in the Northwest TerritoriesLifestyle and prevention program to promote healthy foods and physical activity and to de-promote unhealthy foods in stores, community sites, and the mediaIncreased intake of vitamin A (β 558.23, 95% CI 179.86 to 936.59) and vitamin D (β 89.23, 95% CI 3.86 to 174.60) Reduced population with intakes below the adequate intake levelModerate
      Brimblecombe and colleagues, 2017
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      Stores Healthy Options at Remote Indigenous CommunitiesAustraliaN = 20; community stores (includes co-op stores)Stepped-wedge randomized controlled trialN = 20 stores in remote indigenous communities of the Northwest TerritoryA 20% discount on fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables, bottled water, and artificially sweetened carbonated beverages. Included consumer education to increase intake of fruit, vegetables, and water and to decrease intake of SSBs
      SSB = sugar-sweetened beverage.
      Increased purchases of fruit and vegetables combined (P = 0.0031) and after the discount ended (P = 0.0033). Consumer education resulted in an increase for vegetable purchases during the discount (P = 0.014)Strong
      Butler and colleagues, 2011
      • Butler R.
      • Tapsell L.
      • Lyons-Wall P.
      Trends in purchasing patterns of sugar-sweetened water-based beverages in a remote Aboriginal community store following the implementation of a community-developed store nutrition policy.
      NA
      NA = not applicable.
      AustraliaN = 1; community store (co-op)Case study1 store in a remote indigenous communityRemoval of the 3 highest-selling sugar-sweetened
      WBB = water-based beverage.
      WBBs from the local store
      Total annual volume of sugar-sweetened WBB purchases decreased by 50%Weak
      Gittelsohn and colleagues, 2013
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Kim E.M.
      • He S.
      • Pardilla M.
      A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.
      Navajo Healthy Stores ProgramUnited StatesN = 10; supermarkets, trading posts, convenience storesRandomized controlled trialN = 276 (baseline) and n = 145 (post) Navajo Indian adult customersHealthier food availability, in-store education with educational displays, posters, shelf labels, and radio announcements in Navajo and EnglishBody mass index trended toward a decrease. No significant differences in any outcomes between groupsWeak
      Gustafson and colleagues, 2018
      • Gustafson C.R.
      • Kent R.
      • Prate M.R.
      Retail-based healthy food point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) increase healthy food choices in a rural, low-income, minority community.
      NAUnited StatesN = 1; supermarketControlled trialN = 653 receipts from customers on the Rosebud Sioux Reservation in Mission, SDNarrow PDP
      PDP = point-of-decision prompt.
      , broad PDP, and no PDP conditions. “Food is Good Medicine” labels were placed on all targeted healthy foods
      Shoppers in the narrow prompt condition purchased more healthy foods (P < .01) and spent more on healthy foods (P < .05) and fresh produce (P < 0.05) than controlsModerate
      Hardin-Fanning and Gokun, 2014
      • Hardin-Fanning F.
      • Gokun Y.
      Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.
      NAUnited StatesN = 2; grocery storesCross-sectional pilot studyN = 311 adult customers in intervention stores located in Breathitt county, KY4-wk print media campaign; $5 grocery store voucher; local heart healthy food branding; a 1-day community grocery store eventAssociations between labeled food purchase and older age (P = 0.003) and female sex (P = 0.01).Weak
      Jernigan and colleagues, 2019
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      THRIVEmUnited StatesN = 8; convenience storesCluster-controlled trialn = 1,637 pre-intervention

      n = 1,204 post-intervention Native Americans living in Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations of Oklahoma
      Increased healthy food availability and implemented in-store placement, promotion, and reduced pricing interventionsNo change to fruit and vegetable reported intake. No difference between pre- and post-NEMS
      NEMS = Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.
      (adapted)
      Weak
      Jilcott Pitts and colleagues, 2018
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      North Carolina Healthy Food Small Retailer ProgramUnited StatesN = 13; small storesControlled trial with matched controlsn = 5 unfunded stores (preintervention), n = 4 stores that received HFSRP
      HFSRP = Healthy Food Small Retailer Program.
      funds and n = 4 control stores (postintervention); customers (n = 279 baseline, n = 223 post) intercepted after purchase
      Allocated money for refrigeration equipment, display shelving, and other equipment necessary for stocking nutrient-dense foodsThe Healthy Food Supply Score in the intervention stores was higher than in the control stores (P = 0.04). No change in self-reported consumption, skin carotenoids, or healthy food purchasesModerate
      Kolahdooz and colleagues, 2014
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      Healthy Foods NorthCanadaN = 10; 5 food stores, 3 convenience stores, and 2 control stores. (includes co-op stores)Quasi-experimentalN = 332 adult food preparers from 3 communities in Nunavut and 3 communities in the Northwest TerritoriesLifestyle and prevention program to promote healthy foods and physical activity and to de-promote unhealthy foods in stores, community sites, and in the mediaDecreased intake of de-promoted foods (P ≤ 0.05) and use of unhealthy preparation methods in intervention communities (P < 0.0001)Moderate
      Liu and colleagues, 2017
      • Liu E.
      • Stephenson T.
      • Houlihan J.
      • Gustafson A.
      Marketing strategies to encourage rural residents of high-obesity counties to buy fruits and vegetables in grocery stores.
      Plate It Up Kentucky ProudUnited StatesN = 17; grocery stores or supercentersCross-sectional surveyN = 240 customers in rural Appalachia Kentucky who took a recipe card or sample in the storeSocial marketing campaign included the promotion of targeted foods with fruit and vegetable displays, Plate It Up Kentucky Proud materials, discounts, recipe samples, and recipe cardsParticipants who reported a recipe influenced the purchase of ingredients found in a store food sample were more likely (P = .04) to consume fruit 2 to 3 times per weekWeak
      Martínez-Donate and colleagues, 2015
      • Martínez-Donate A.P.
      • Riggall A.J.
      • Meinen A.M.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial.
      Waupaca Eating SmartUnited StatesN = 2; grocery storesRandomized community pilot studyIntervention n = 96 (pre) n = 203 (post); control n = 99 (pre) n = 203 (post) adult customers intercepted at grocery stores in 2 rural, Midwest communitiesSocial marketing campaign, including social media; store displays, food samples, recipes for bundled meals, and healthy eating tips; involved local Nutrition and Physical Activity CoalitionIncreased perceived healthiness of the food purchased in the intervention community (P = 0.022). Average NEMS score declined in storesModerate
      Mead and colleagues, 2013
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      Healthy Foods NorthCanadaN = 10; 5 food stores, 3 convenience stores, and 2 control stores. (includes co-op stores)Quasi-experimentalIntervention n = 246 (pre and post); control n = 133 (pre and post) adult food preparers from 3 communities in Nunavut and 3 communities in the Northwest TerritoriesLifestyle and prevention program to promote healthy foods and physical activity and to de-promote unhealthy foods in stores, community sites, and the mediaDecreased purchases of unhealthy foods (P = 0.0019) and improved food-related attitudes and behaviors (P < 0.001) in intervention communities. No influence on body mass indexModerate
      Pakseresht and colleagues, 2014
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      Healthy Foods NorthCanadaN = 10; 5 food stores, 3 convenience stores, and 2 control stores (includes co-op stores)Quasi-experimentalIntervention n = 172 (pre and post), control n = 91 (pre and post) adult food preparers from 3 communities in Nunavut and 3 communities in the Northwest TerritoriesLifestyle and prevention program to promote healthy foods and physical activity and to de-promote unhealthy foods in stores, community sites, and the mediaDecreased energy intake (P = 0.0001) and increased vitamin A (ß 232.38, 95% CI 104.04 to 360.72) and vitamin D (ß 53.46, 95% CI -1.88 to 108.80) intake in intervention communitiesModerate
      Palermo and colleagues, 2016
      • Palermo C.
      • Gardiner B.
      • Gee C.
      • Charaktis S.
      • Blake M.
      A mixed-methods impact evaluation of the feasibility of an initiative in small rural stores to improve access to fruit and vegetables.
      Improving retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables projectAustraliaN = 21; small grocery storesMixed methods pre–post evaluationN = 21 rural small stores in Victoria, AustraliaFinancial and material incentives (including equipment) to retailers to stock fruit and vegetables, cooking demonstrations, giveaways, fruit and vegetable boxes, recipe and loyalty cards, business innovation expertise, and social marketing programIncreased range of fruits and vegetables stocked over time (P = 0.028). Collection of sales data was challenging because retailers were unwilling to supply this information. Most small store retailers had manual sales recordsWeak
      Rushakoff and colleagues, 2017
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      Healthy2GoUnited StatesN = 10; country storesQuasi-experimentalN = 10 stores located in the Cumberland Valley of Appalachian Kentucky; n = 287 (baseline), n = 281 (follow-up) community residents within 10 miles of storesInventory and store improvements; a food label reading guide for managers; POP materials; promotional eventsIncreased availability of produce, dairy, and some grains, no change in meat, and decreased whole-wheat bread and healthy cereals. Increased likelihood of people to purchase healthy foods at country stores (P = 0.05)Weak
      Steeves and colleagues, 2015
      • Steeves E.A.
      • Penniston E.
      • Rowan M.
      • Steeves J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A rural small food store pilot intervention creates trends toward improved healthy food availability.
      Maryland Healthy StoresUnited StatesN = 8; small food storesQuasi-experimental pilot interventionN = 8 small food stores in Charles County, MDIncreased stocking and promotion of 12 healthier items that were equivalent in price to their replacementsPositive trends in stocking the promoted foods and in the storeowners’ perceived ability to sell healthier itemsModerate
      Toft and colleagues, 2017
      • Toft U.
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Mikkelsen B.E.
      • Bloch P.
      • Glumer C.
      Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.
      Part of Project SoLnDenmarkN = 5; supermarketsControlled trialIntervention stores n = 2; control stores n = 3 on the island of Bornholm, DenmarkA 20% discount on fruit and vegetables combined with improved shelf space allocation or improved shelf space allocation onlyDiscount increased sales of fruit and vegetables (P = 0.010). Improved space allocation alone did not increase salesWeak
      Waterlander and colleagues, 2013
      • Waterlander W.E.
      • de Boer M.R.
      • Schuit A.J.
      • Seidell J.C.
      • Steenhuis I.H.
      Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.
      NAthe NetherlandsN = 4; supermarketsRandomized controlled trialn = 199 (baseline), n = 151 (post) low SES
      SES = socioeconomic status.
      customers in rural provinces of the Netherlands
      A 50% discount on fruits and vegetables, 50% discount plus nutrition education, or nutrition education onlyThe discount + education and discount only groups purchased more fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001) and reported more participants with sufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables (P = 0.03)Strong
      Winkler and colleagues, 2016
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Christensen U.
      • Glumer C.
      • et al.
      Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout—a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? A study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.
      Part of Project SoLnDenmarkN = 28; supermarkets (included co-ops)Quasi-experimental with matched controlsIntervention stores (n = 4) in Bornholm, Denmark; control stores (n = 24) in Bornholm or Odsherrod, DenmarkSubstitution of sugar confectionary with healthy, convenient snacking options at 1 checkout counter per storeNo significant difference in the sales of sugar confectionary in the healthy checkout lineModerate
      Urban
      Adjoian and colleagues, 2017
      • Adjoian T.
      • Chantelle B.
      • Craig W.
      • Rachel D.
      • Sharraine F.
      Healthy checkout lines: a study in urban supermarkets.
      Shop HealthyUnited StatesN = 3; supermarketsObservational pilot studyN = 2,131 adult customers who paid for groceries in 3 supermarkets in the South Bronx, NYConverted 1 standard checkout line to a healthy checkout line4% of total customers bought at least 1 item in the healthy checkout line. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy checkout line bought healthy itemsWeak
      Bihan and colleagues, 2012
      • Bihan H.
      • Mejean C.
      • Castetbon K.
      • et al.
      Impact of fruit and vegetable vouchers and dietary advice on fruit and vegetable intake in a low-income population.
      NAFranceN = 50; supermarketsRandomized controlled trialN = 302 low-income adults aged 18-60 y in BobignyNutrition advice from a dietitian for both groups; a monthly fruit and vegetable voucher or no voucherAfter 3 mo, mean fruit and vegetable consumption increased in advice group (0.62 ± 1.29 times/day; P = 0.0004) and vouchers group (0.74 ± 1.90; P = 0.002). Vouchers group decreased the risk of low fruit/vegetable consumption. (P = 0.008). No change in vitamin C and β-carotene levelsWeak
      Blakely and colleagues, 2011
      • Blakely T.
      • Ni Mhurchu C.
      • Jiang Y.
      • et al.
      Do effects of price discounts and nutrition education on food purchases vary by ethnicity, income and education? Results from a randomised, controlled trial.
      Supermarket Healthy Options PilotNew ZealandN = 8; supermarketsRandomized controlled trialN = 1,104 European, Pacific, or Māori shoppers in Wellington who shopped with the electronic food scanner systemA 12.5% discount on healthier foods and/or tailored nutrition education, including group education for Māori and Pacific Islander participantsNo overall association of price discounts or nutrition education with percent energy from saturated fat or healthy food purchasing. Association of price discounts with healthy food purchasing by ethnicity and percent energy from saturated fat during the first 6 mo (0.79 kg/wk increase, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.16)Weak
      Bleich and colleagues, 2012
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Herring B.J.
      • Flagg D.D.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information.
      NAUnited StatesN = 4; corner storesCase crossover design (variant)N = 1600 beverage sales to Black adolescents aged 12-18 y in corner stores located in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore, MDRandomly posted 1 of 3 signs near the beverage cooler with the calorie information: 1) Absolute calorie count, 2) Percentage of total recommended daily intake, 3) Physical activity equivalentProviding any calorie information significantly reduced the odds of SSB purchases. (odds ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89). Presenting the calorie information as a physical activity equivalent significantly reduced odds to purchase an SSB. (odds ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.85)Moderate
      Bleich and colleagues, 2014
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Barry C.L.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      • Herring B.J.
      Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how Black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist.
      NAUnited StatesN = 6; corner storesCase crossover design (variant)N = 4,516 sales to Black adolescents aged 12-18 y in corner stores located in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore, MDRandomly posted 1 of 3 signs near the beverage cooler with the calorie information: 1) Absolute calorie count, 2) Number of teaspoons of sugar, 3) Number of minutes running to burn off the calories, and 4) The number of miles walking to burn off the caloriesProviding calorie information reduced the total number of purchased beverage calories and was associated with reduced purchases of SSBs and fewer purchases of a SSB >16 oz (P < 0.05). After removing the signs, SSB purchases remained lower than baseline (P < 0.05).Moderate
      Budd and colleagues, 2017
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      Baltimore Healthy Retail RewardsUnited StatesN = 26; 24 corner stores, 2 wholesale storesRandomized controlled trial - factorial designN = 24 corner stores located in low-income Baltimore neighborhoods with >75% African American population10%-30% price discount on healthier food items and/or a communication interventionPricing only, communications only, and combined groups saw a 3.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.9; P = 0.002), 2.5 (95% CI 0.7 to 4.3; P = 0.007), and 3.5 (95% CI 0.8 to 6.2; P = 0.012) unit score increase in stocking of promoted foods. No change in total sales of targeted foodsWeak
      Cavanaugh and colleagues, 2014
      • Cavanaugh E.
      • Green S.
      • Mallya G.
      • Tierney A.
      • Brensinger C.
      • Glanz K.
      Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.
      Part of Get Healthy PhillyUnited StatesN = 246; corner storesObservational evaluationn = 177 (baseline) and n = 195 (follow-up) corner stores enrolled with HCSI
      HCSI = Healthy Corner Store Initiative.
      and located in high poverty areas of Philadelphia
      Incentives (monetary, equipment, and business training) offered for basic and high intensity store conversion levelsIncreased availability of fruit over time in conversion stores: apples (P = 0.005), oranges (P < 0.001), and grapes (P < 0.004)Weak
      Dannefer and colleagues, 2012
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      Healthy Bodegas InitiativeUnited StatesN = 55; bodegasBefore and after evaluationn = 294 (baseline) and n = 323 (follow up) customers in 55 bodegas in south Bronx and East New York City; n = 46 managers (baseline and post) completed surveyAssistance from the Healthy Bodega Initiative to improve the stock and purchase of healthy foodsIncreased number of stores met healthy stocking criteria (P < 0.001). Owners (78%) reported the intervention helped to increase sales of healthier items. Sales data were not availableWeak
      Foster and colleagues, 2014
      • Foster G.D.
      • Karpyn A.
      • Wojtanowski A.C.
      • et al.
      Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.
      NAUnited StatesN = 8; supermarketsCluster randomized controlled trialN = 8 supermarkets located in low-income, high-minority neighborhoods in Philadelphia, PA, and Wilmington, DEImplemented marketing strategies: 1) Multiple facings of targeted items, 2) Prime placement, 3) Signage, 4) Secondary placement, 5) Cross-promotion, and 6) Taste testing and free samplesIncreased sales of 1% milk (P = 0.0014), skim milk (P = .0078), 2 of 3 targeted frozen meals (P = 0.0326 and P = 0.0074), and chilled bottled water at the checkout line (P = 0.0002)Strong
      Franckle and colleagues, 2018
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      Choose Well/Elige Bien Beverage ProgramUnited StatesN = 1; supermarketRandomized controlled trialN = 148 adults who spoke English or Spanish and had at least 1 child aged <18 y living in the home in Chelsea, MATraffic label system for beverages that were categorized as containing the most (red) to least (green) added sugar; 5% discount on groceries and $25/mo for not buying beverages in the red categoryThe proportion of the intervention group that purchased category red SSBs decreased significantly by 9% more per month than control (P = 0.002)Weak
      Futrell Dunaway and colleagues, 2016
      • Futrell Dunaway L.
      • Mundorf A.R.
      • Rose D.
      Fresh fruit and vegetable profitability: insights from a corner store intervention in New Orleans, Louisiana.
      NAUnited StatesN = 1; corner storeCase studyn = 200 (baseline) n = 123 (follow-up) customers in a corner store in a low-income neighborhood in New Orleans, LAAddition of a produce cooler, promotional materials, taste tests of fresh fruit, articles in neighborhood newsletter.Fresh fruit and vegetable stocking increased 16%. Sweetened beverage stocking declined 12%.Weak
      Gittelsohn and colleagues, 2017
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      B’more Healthy Communities for KidsUnited StatesN = 55; corner storesRandomized controlled trialn = 385 children aged 10-14 y, n = 387 caregivers in dyads (predominantly African American) residing in low-income food desert zones of Baltimore, MDIntervention phases: healthy drinks, healthy snacks, and healthy cooking methods; wholesaler discount for stocking targeted foods; store owner incentives to stock and promote B’more Healthy Communities for Kids products; educational sessions; social mediaNo change in total sales of promoted foods. The wholesaler reported increased sales of promoted beverages and snacks. Increased stocking of promoted foods and beverages in corner stores (P < 0.01)Moderate
      Gudzune and colleagues, 2015
      • Gudzune K.A.
      • Welsh C.
      • Lane E.
      • Chissell Z.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Increasing access to fresh produce by pairing urban farms with corner stores: a case study in a low-income urban setting.
      NAUnited StatesN = 2; corner storesCase study with pre- and post-evaluationN = 2 urban farms paired with corner stores in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore, MDCollaboration of farmers and storeowners on selection and quantity of fresh produce to sell in stores; monetary incentive to assist store with payment of produce costs1 pair increased the mean number of produce varieties stocked (P < .01) and sold 86% of delivered product. Key factors were community support, adequate refrigeration to prevent spoilage, and store competitionWeak
      Lawman and colleagues, 2015
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      Part of Get Healthy PhillyUnited StatesN = 192; corner stores enrolled in the HCSI located in high-poverty areas of PAQuasi-experimentaln = 8,671 (baseline) and n = 5,949 (follow-up) customers who were intercepted at corner storesIncentives (monetary, equipment, and business training) offered for basic and high-intensity store conversion levelsNo significant changes in energy or nutrient content of purchases from baseline to follow-up, between high and basic conversions, or between sex and age groups over timeStrong
      Lent and colleagues, 2014
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      NAUnited StatesN = 24; corner storesRandomized controlled trialN = 767 students in grades 4 to 6 from 10 schools in low-income minority neighborhoods in Philadelphia, PAHealthy snack intervention targeting bottled water and prepared fruit salad. Included nutrition education sessions, a social marketing campaign, and corner store initiativesNo significant differences in energy content and nutrient content for intercept purchases, body mass index, or the prevalence of obesity between groups at baseline or Years 1 and 2Weak
      Minaker and colleagues, 2017
      • Minaker L.M.
      • Lynch M.
      • Cook B.E.
      • Mah C.L.
      Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project.
      Food Retail Environments Shaping Health StudyCanadaN = 1; corner storeMixed methods pilot studyStore sales from 1 corner store located in low-income housing area of TorontoManagement training on business fundamentals, merchandising, and promotions; purchase and installation of new coolers and shelvingMonthly sales revenue of fresh produce had an increased trend. Store sales had an increased trend the day after distribution of social assistance checks, but sales of fruit and vegetables did notWeak
      Ortega and colleagues, 2016
      • Ortega A.N.
      • Albert S.L.
      • Chan-Golston A.M.
      • et al.
      Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps.
      Proyecto MercadoFRESCO (Fresh Market Project)United StatesN = 8; corner storesRepeated cross-sectional evaluation designLatino primary food purchasers and preparers (n = 1,035 pre-intervention, n = 1,052 post-intervention) living in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, CAMakeovers of interior and exterior of store, product placement strategies, social marketing promotions, refrigeration equipment to display fruits and vegetables, store owner trainingPerceptions of food accessibility and corner stores improved over time in intervention and control groups (P < 0.01). No significant effects on patronage, purchasing, or the consumption of healthy foodsModerate
      Paek and colleagues, 2014
      • Paek H.J.
      • Oh H.J.
      • Jung Y.
      • et al.
      Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.
      FIT Store ProgramUnited StatesN = 4; corner storesPilot study - repeated cross-sectional designn = 421 (preintervention), n = 329 (postintervention) low-income, ethnically diverse adults shopping in neighborhood FIT corner stores in Grand Rapids, MISmall grants for equipment; store manager training to identify sources of healthy foods; onsite nutrition information materialsThree FIT stores improved their total NEMS-S availability scores. Healthy food purchases increased by self-report. FIT awareness increased (P = .05) and monthly bean and nut consumption increased (P < 0.01)Weak
      Shin and colleagues, 2015
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      Baltimore Healthy Eating ZonesUnited StatesN = 21; corner storesClustered randomized controlled trialn = 242 dyads (baseline), n = 152 youth aged 10-14 y and n = 161 caregivers (follow-up). African American youth–caregiver dyads residing in low-income areas of Baltimore, MDIntervention phases: healthful beverages, healthful breakfast, cooking at home/healthful lunch, healthful snacks, and healthful options at carryout restaurants.

      POP materials and nutrition education
      Youth body mass index decreased (P = 0.04). Body mass index for age decreased in girls (P = 0.03). No changes in customer purchases of targeted foods or food preparation methodsModerate
      Surkan and colleagues, 2016
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Tabrizi M.J.
      • Lee R.M.
      • Palmer A.M.
      • Frick K.D.
      Eat right–live well! Supermarket intervention impact on sales of healthy foods in a low-income neighborhood.
      Eat Right - Live Well!United StatesN = 2; supermarketsQuasi-experimentalN = 2 supermarkets in low-income, primarily African American neighborhoods in Baltimore, MDIncreased stocking and shelf labels/signage to identify promoted foods, taste tests, advertisements in store circulars, staff training, and community outreach eventsThe difference in sales of promoted products compared with sales in preintervention years was more favorable in the intervention store than the controlModerate
      Sutton and colleagues, 2019
      • Sutton K.
      • Caldwell J.
      • Yoshida S.
      • Thompson J.
      • Kuo T.
      Healthy food marketing and purchases of fruits and vegetables in large grocery stores.
      Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention

      Program
      United StatesN = 6 grocery storesCross-sectional surveyN = 1,101 adult store patrons who spoke English or SpanishMass media campaign; POP materials, food demonstrations; taste-tests to promote fruit, vegetables, and other healthy food and beveragesIn sample with exposure to 1 visual, women spent more on fruit and vegetables (β 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.13; P = 0.029). Participants enrolled in SNAP
      SNAP = Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
      reported spending 6% more on fruit and vegetables than SNAP nonparticipants. (β 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.12; P = 0.046)
      Weak
      Thorndike and colleagues, 2017
      • Thorndike A.N.
      • Bright O.M.
      • Dimond M.A.
      • Fishman R.
      • Levy D.E.
      Choice architecture to promote fruit and vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): randomized corner store pilot study.
      NAUnited StatesN = 6; corner storesRandomized corner store pilot studyN = 575 adult customers in corner stores located in Chelsea, MAProvided display shelving, refrigerators, improvements to location and presentation of produce, and education for storeowners and managers by a produce consultantWIC
      WIC = Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
      sales of fruits and vegetables increased (P = 0.036). Positive trend for WIC participants reporting increased purchases of fruits and vegetables
      Weak
      Trude and colleagues, 2018
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      B’more Healthy Communities for KidsUnited StatesN = 55; corner storesGroup randomized controlled trialn = 534 (baseline), n = 401 (follow-up) African American children aged 9-15 y residing in Baltimore, MDIntervention phases: healthy drinks, healthy snacks, and healthy cooking methods; wholesaler discount for stocking targeted foods; store owner incentives to stock and promote B’more Healthy Communities for Kids products; educational sessions; social mediaIncreased healthier food and beverage purchases (P < 0.05). Decreased consumption of calories from sweets for the older intervention youth (P < 0.05). No influence on SSBs or fruit and vegetable consumptionModerate
      Trude and colleagues, 2019
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      B'more Healthy Communities for KidsUnited StatesN = 50 corner storesGroup randomized controlled trialN = 533 African American caregivers of children aged 9-15 yIntervention phases: healthy drinks, healthy snacks, and healthy cooking methods; wholesaler discount for stocking targeted foods; store owner incentives to stock and promote B’more Healthy Communities for Kids products; educational sessions; social mediaNo significant effect on caregivers’ food-related behaviors. High social media exposure was associated with increased daily fruit intake (3.16 ±.92; 95% CI 1.33 to 4.99)Weak
      Wensel and colleagues, 2018
      • Wensel C.R.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      B’more healthy corner stores for moms and kids: identifying optimal behavioral economic strategies to increase WIC redemptions in small urban corner stores.
      B’more Healthy Corner Stores for Moms and kidsUnited StatesN = 10; corner storesRandomized controlled trialN = 10 WIC-authorized corner stores in low-income areas of Baltimore, MDImplemented BE
      BE = Behavioral Economics.mTribal Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments.nProject Sundhed & Lokalsamfund.
      strategies: storeowner training in 3 languages, POP promotion, product placement, grouping of products
      Sales of infant foods to WIC-eligible customers increased after 2 BE strategies (P < 0.05)Moderate
      Woodward-Lopez and colleagues, 2017
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      Part of Healthy Eating and Active LivingUnited StatesN = 9; small storesPre- and post- intervention without controlZone 1 pre n = 159, post n = 163; Zone 2 pre n = 155, post n = 151; Zone 3 pre n = 391, post n = 418. Customers intercepted at small stores located in under-resourced neighborhoods in Northern CaliforniaIncluded complete remodeling of some stores, store layout improvements, technical assistance related to produce and marketing, community events, incentives, taste tests, food demonstrations, and signageDecreased purchases of sweets and chips (P < 0.05) and increased purchases of fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05). Results varied by zone and store. Decreased purchases of targeted SSBs were offset by increased purchases of other SSBsWeak
      a POP = point of purchase.
      b SSB = sugar-sweetened beverage.
      c NA = not applicable.
      d WBB = water-based beverage.
      e PDP = point-of-decision prompt.
      f NEMS = Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.
      g HFSRP = Healthy Food Small Retailer Program.
      h SES = socioeconomic status.
      i HCSI = Healthy Corner Store Initiative.
      j SNAP = Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
      k WIC = Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
      l BE = Behavioral Economics.mTribal Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments.nProject Sundhed & Lokalsamfund.
      Figure 2Nutrition and store outcomes for studies included in the systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in low-income rural and urban retail environments.
      Nutrition outcomes
      Customer purchases of targeted foods
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      ,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      ,
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      ,
      • Gustafson C.R.
      • Kent R.
      • Prate M.R.
      Retail-based healthy food point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) increase healthy food choices in a rural, low-income, minority community.
      ,
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      ,
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      • Hardin-Fanning F.
      • Gokun Y.
      Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Herring B.J.
      • Flagg D.D.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information.
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Barry C.L.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      • Herring B.J.
      Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how Black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist.
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      ,
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Waterlander W.E.
      • de Boer M.R.
      • Schuit A.J.
      • Seidell J.C.
      • Steenhuis I.H.
      Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.
      ,
      • Adjoian T.
      • Chantelle B.
      • Craig W.
      • Rachel D.
      • Sharraine F.
      Healthy checkout lines: a study in urban supermarkets.
      ,
      • Blakely T.
      • Ni Mhurchu C.
      • Jiang Y.
      • et al.
      Do effects of price discounts and nutrition education on food purchases vary by ethnicity, income and education? Results from a randomised, controlled trial.
      ,
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      ,
      • Ortega A.N.
      • Albert S.L.
      • Chan-Golston A.M.
      • et al.
      Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps.
      ,
      • Paek H.J.
      • Oh H.J.
      • Jung Y.
      • et al.
      Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.
      ,
      • Sutton K.
      • Caldwell J.
      • Yoshida S.
      • Thompson J.
      • Kuo T.
      Healthy food marketing and purchases of fruits and vegetables in large grocery stores.
      ,
      • Thorndike A.N.
      • Bright O.M.
      • Dimond M.A.
      • Fishman R.
      • Levy D.E.
      Choice architecture to promote fruit and vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): randomized corner store pilot study.
      Intake of targeted foods and/or energy and nutrient consumption
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      ,
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      ,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      ,
      • Ayala G.X.
      • Baquero B.
      • Laraia B.A.
      • Ji M.
      • Linnan L.
      Efficacy of a store-based environmental change intervention compared with a delayed treatment control condition on store customers’ intake of fruits and vegetables.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      ,
      • Liu E.
      • Stephenson T.
      • Houlihan J.
      • Gustafson A.
      Marketing strategies to encourage rural residents of high-obesity counties to buy fruits and vegetables in grocery stores.
      ,
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Waterlander W.E.
      • de Boer M.R.
      • Schuit A.J.
      • Seidell J.C.
      • Steenhuis I.H.
      Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.
      ,
      • Bihan H.
      • Mejean C.
      • Castetbon K.
      • et al.
      Impact of fruit and vegetable vouchers and dietary advice on fruit and vegetable intake in a low-income population.
      ,
      • Ortega A.N.
      • Albert S.L.
      • Chan-Golston A.M.
      • et al.
      Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps.
      ,
      • Paek H.J.
      • Oh H.J.
      • Jung Y.
      • et al.
      Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.
      Sales of targeted foods
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      ,
      • Butler R.
      • Tapsell L.
      • Lyons-Wall P.
      Trends in purchasing patterns of sugar-sweetened water-based beverages in a remote Aboriginal community store following the implementation of a community-developed store nutrition policy.
      ,
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Christensen U.
      • Glumer C.
      • et al.
      Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout—a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? A study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.
      ,
      • Toft U.
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Mikkelsen B.E.
      • Bloch P.
      • Glumer C.
      Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.
      ,
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      • Foster G.D.
      • Karpyn A.
      • Wojtanowski A.C.
      • et al.
      Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.
      • Futrell Dunaway L.
      • Mundorf A.R.
      • Rose D.
      Fresh fruit and vegetable profitability: insights from a corner store intervention in New Orleans, Louisiana.
      • Gudzune K.A.
      • Welsh C.
      • Lane E.
      • Chissell Z.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Increasing access to fresh produce by pairing urban farms with corner stores: a case study in a low-income urban setting.
      • Minaker L.M.
      • Lynch M.
      • Cook B.E.
      • Mah C.L.
      Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project.
      ,
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Tabrizi M.J.
      • Lee R.M.
      • Palmer A.M.
      • Frick K.D.
      Eat right–live well! Supermarket intervention impact on sales of healthy foods in a low-income neighborhood.
      ,
      • Thorndike A.N.
      • Bright O.M.
      • Dimond M.A.
      • Fishman R.
      • Levy D.E.
      Choice architecture to promote fruit and vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): randomized corner store pilot study.
      ,
      • Wensel C.R.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      B’more healthy corner stores for moms and kids: identifying optimal behavioral economic strategies to increase WIC redemptions in small urban corner stores.
      Body mass index
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      ,
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      ,
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      ,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Kim E.M.
      • He S.
      • Pardilla M.
      A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      Food-related attitudes and behaviors
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      ,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Kim E.M.
      • He S.
      • Pardilla M.
      A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.
      ,
      • Martínez-Donate A.P.
      • Riggall A.J.
      • Meinen A.M.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial.
      Changes in food preparation methods
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      ,
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      ,
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      ,
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      Obesity prevalence
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      Store outcomes
      Store environment
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Cavanaugh E.
      • Green S.
      • Mallya G.
      • Tierney A.
      • Brensinger C.
      • Glanz K.
      Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.
      ,
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      ,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      ,
      • Ayala G.X.
      • Baquero B.
      • Laraia B.A.
      • Ji M.
      • Linnan L.
      Efficacy of a store-based environmental change intervention compared with a delayed treatment control condition on store customers’ intake of fruits and vegetables.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      ,
      • Martínez-Donate A.P.
      • Riggall A.J.
      • Meinen A.M.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial.
      • Palermo C.
      • Gardiner B.
      • Gee C.
      • Charaktis S.
      • Blake M.
      A mixed-methods impact evaluation of the feasibility of an initiative in small rural stores to improve access to fruit and vegetables.
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      • Steeves E.A.
      • Penniston E.
      • Rowan M.
      • Steeves J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A rural small food store pilot intervention creates trends toward improved healthy food availability.
      ,
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      ,
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      ,
      • Futrell Dunaway L.
      • Mundorf A.R.
      • Rose D.
      Fresh fruit and vegetable profitability: insights from a corner store intervention in New Orleans, Louisiana.
      ,
      • Gudzune K.A.
      • Welsh C.
      • Lane E.
      • Chissell Z.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Increasing access to fresh produce by pairing urban farms with corner stores: a case study in a low-income urban setting.
      ,
      • Ortega A.N.
      • Albert S.L.
      • Chan-Golston A.M.
      • et al.
      Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps.
      ,
      • Paek H.J.
      • Oh H.J.
      • Jung Y.
      • et al.
      Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.
      ,
      • Wensel C.R.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      B’more healthy corner stores for moms and kids: identifying optimal behavioral economic strategies to increase WIC redemptions in small urban corner stores.
      Storeowner participation
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Steeves E.A.
      • Penniston E.
      • Rowan M.
      • Steeves J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A rural small food store pilot intervention creates trends toward improved healthy food availability.
      Storeowner attitudes
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      ,
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      Nutrition-related outcomes, including customer purchases (a proxy for intake) and the intake of targeted foods were assessed by self-report,
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      ,
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Hardin-Fanning F.
      • Gokun Y.
      Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.
      ,
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      ,
      • Ayala G.X.
      • Baquero B.
      • Laraia B.A.
      • Ji M.
      • Linnan L.
      Efficacy of a store-based environmental change intervention compared with a delayed treatment control condition on store customers’ intake of fruits and vegetables.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      ,
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Waterlander W.E.
      • de Boer M.R.
      • Schuit A.J.
      • Seidell J.C.
      • Steenhuis I.H.
      Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.
      ,
      • Bihan H.
      • Mejean C.
      • Castetbon K.
      • et al.
      Impact of fruit and vegetable vouchers and dietary advice on fruit and vegetable intake in a low-income population.
      ,
      • Ortega A.N.
      • Albert S.L.
      • Chan-Golston A.M.
      • et al.
      Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps.
      customer interview,
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      ,
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      ,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      ,
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      ,
      • Liu E.
      • Stephenson T.
      • Houlihan J.
      • Gustafson A.
      Marketing strategies to encourage rural residents of high-obesity counties to buy fruits and vegetables in grocery stores.
      ,
      • Sutton K.
      • Caldwell J.
      • Yoshida S.
      • Thompson J.
      • Kuo T.
      Healthy food marketing and purchases of fruits and vegetables in large grocery stores.
      and in-store observation.
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Herring B.J.
      • Flagg D.D.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information.
      ,
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Barry C.L.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      • Herring B.J.
      Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how Black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist.
      ,
      • Adjoian T.
      • Chantelle B.
      • Craig W.
      • Rachel D.
      • Sharraine F.
      Healthy checkout lines: a study in urban supermarkets.
      When included, researchers measured participant height and weight except in one study where they were self-reported.
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      Vitamin status was assessed by testing skin carotenoid levels
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      and obtaining blood samples to measure vitamin C, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and erythrocyte folate levels.
      • Bihan H.
      • Mejean C.
      • Castetbon K.
      • et al.
      Impact of fruit and vegetable vouchers and dietary advice on fruit and vegetable intake in a low-income population.
      Store sales were assessed by stock reports,
      • Butler R.
      • Tapsell L.
      • Lyons-Wall P.
      Trends in purchasing patterns of sugar-sweetened water-based beverages in a remote Aboriginal community store following the implementation of a community-developed store nutrition policy.
      storeowner reports,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      ,
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      ,
      • Wensel C.R.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      B’more healthy corner stores for moms and kids: identifying optimal behavioral economic strategies to increase WIC redemptions in small urban corner stores.
      cash register receipts,
      • Gustafson C.R.
      • Kent R.
      • Prate M.R.
      Retail-based healthy food point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) increase healthy food choices in a rural, low-income, minority community.
      ,
      • Waterlander W.E.
      • de Boer M.R.
      • Schuit A.J.
      • Seidell J.C.
      • Steenhuis I.H.
      Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.
      inventory calculations,
      • Futrell Dunaway L.
      • Mundorf A.R.
      • Rose D.
      Fresh fruit and vegetable profitability: insights from a corner store intervention in New Orleans, Louisiana.
      ,
      • Gudzune K.A.
      • Welsh C.
      • Lane E.
      • Chissell Z.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Increasing access to fresh produce by pairing urban farms with corner stores: a case study in a low-income urban setting.
      reports from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC),
      • Thorndike A.N.
      • Bright O.M.
      • Dimond M.A.
      • Fishman R.
      • Levy D.E.
      Choice architecture to promote fruit and vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): randomized corner store pilot study.
      wholesaler sales data,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      and electronic sales data,
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      ,
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Christensen U.
      • Glumer C.
      • et al.
      Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout—a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? A study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.
      ,
      • Toft U.
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Mikkelsen B.E.
      • Bloch P.
      • Glumer C.
      Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.
      ,
      • Blakely T.
      • Ni Mhurchu C.
      • Jiang Y.
      • et al.
      Do effects of price discounts and nutrition education on food purchases vary by ethnicity, income and education? Results from a randomised, controlled trial.
      ,
      • Foster G.D.
      • Karpyn A.
      • Wojtanowski A.C.
      • et al.
      Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Minaker L.M.
      • Lynch M.
      • Cook B.E.
      • Mah C.L.
      Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project.
      ,
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Tabrizi M.J.
      • Lee R.M.
      • Palmer A.M.
      • Frick K.D.
      Eat right–live well! Supermarket intervention impact on sales of healthy foods in a low-income neighborhood.
      which included collection by handheld scanners
      • Blakely T.
      • Ni Mhurchu C.
      • Jiang Y.
      • et al.
      Do effects of price discounts and nutrition education on food purchases vary by ethnicity, income and education? Results from a randomised, controlled trial.
      and loyalty cards.
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      Researchers assessed the store environment most frequently by audit, and in some cases adapted the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Cavanaugh E.
      • Green S.
      • Mallya G.
      • Tierney A.
      • Brensinger C.
      • Glanz K.
      Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.
      ,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      ,
      • Martínez-Donate A.P.
      • Riggall A.J.
      • Meinen A.M.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial.
      ,
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Paek H.J.
      • Oh H.J.
      • Jung Y.
      • et al.
      Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.
      Targeted foods in the low-income rural and urban retail stores are listed in Figure 3. The consumption of traditional foods, including caribou, seal, and fish by the indigenous people of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Canada, was encouraged to counter the nutrition transition, ie, when increased intake of EDNP imported foods resulted in decreased intake of nutrient dense, lower-energy foods.
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      ,
      • Sharma S.
      • Beck L.
      • Rosol R.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.
      Figure 3Targeted foods and beverages of the included studies in the systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in low-income rural and urban retail environments.
      Foods promotedFoods discouraged
      Beans and legumes
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      ,
      • Hardin-Fanning F.
      • Gokun Y.
      Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      ,
      • Paek H.J.
      • Oh H.J.
      • Jung Y.
      • et al.
      Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.
      EDNP
      EDNP = energy dense nutrient poor.
      snacks
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      ,
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      ,
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      ,
      • Winkler L.L.
      • Christensen U.
      • Glumer C.
      • et al.
      Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout—a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? A study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.
      ,
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Futrell Dunaway L.
      • Mundorf A.R.
      • Rose D.
      Fresh fruit and vegetable profitability: insights from a corner store intervention in New Orleans, Louisiana.
      Bottled water
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      • Cavanaugh E.
      • Green S.
      • Mallya G.
      • Tierney A.
      • Brensinger C.
      • Glanz K.
      Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.
      • Lawman H.G.
      • Vander Veur S.
      • Mallya G.
      • et al.
      Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention.
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      ,
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Lent M.R.
      • Vander Veur S.S.
      • McCoy T.A.
      • et al.
      A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.
      ,
      • Shin A.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Coutinho A.J.
      • et al.
      Impact of Baltimore healthy eating zones: an environmental intervention to improve diet among African American youth.
      ,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Kim E.M.
      • He S.
      • Pardilla M.
      A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.
      ,
      • Rushakoff J.A.
      • Zoughbie D.E.
      • Bui N.
      • DeVito K.
      • Makarechi L.
      • Kubo H.
      Evaluation of Healthy2Go: a country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.
      ,
      • Steeves E.A.
      • Penniston E.
      • Rowan M.
      • Steeves J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A rural small food store pilot intervention creates trends toward improved healthy food availability.
      ,
      • Adjoian T.
      • Chantelle B.
      • Craig W.
      • Rachel D.
      • Sharraine F.
      Healthy checkout lines: a study in urban supermarkets.
      ,
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      • Dannefer R.
      • Williams D.A.
      • Baronberg S.
      • Silver L.
      Healthy bodegas: increasing and promoting healthy foods at corner stores in New York City.
      • Foster G.D.
      • Karpyn A.
      • Wojtanowski A.C.
      • et al.
      Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.
      Sugar-sweetened beverages
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      ,
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      ,
      • Brimblecombe J.
      • Ferguson M.
      • Chatfield M.D.
      • et al.
      Effect of a price discount and consumer education strategy on food and beverage purchases in remote Indigenous Australia: a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial.
      ,
      • Butler R.
      • Tapsell L.
      • Lyons-Wall P.
      Trends in purchasing patterns of sugar-sweetened water-based beverages in a remote Aboriginal community store following the implementation of a community-developed store nutrition policy.
      ,
      • Woodward-Lopez G.
      • Kao J.
      • Kuo E.S.
      • et al.
      Changes in consumer purchases in stores participating in an obesity prevention initiative.
      ,
      • Franckle R.L.
      • Levy D.E.
      • Macias-Navarro L.
      • Rimm E.B.
      • Thorndike A.N.
      Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Herring B.J.
      • Flagg D.D.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information.
      ,
      • Bleich S.N.
      • Barry C.L.
      • Gary-Webb T.L.
      • Herring B.J.
      Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how Black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist.
      ,
      • Foster G.D.
      • Karpyn A.
      • Wojtanowski A.C.
      • et al.
      Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial.
      Fish and seafood
      • Mead E.L.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.
      • Bains A.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Roache C.
      • et al.
      Healthy Foods North improves diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of childbearing age in Arctic Canada.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Roache C.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study.
      • Kolahdooz F.
      • Pakseresht M.
      • Mead E.
      • Beck L.
      • Corriveau A.
      • Sharma S.
      Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      ,
      • Jernigan V.B.B.
      • Salvatore A.L.
      • Williams M.
      • et al.
      A healthy retail intervention in Native American convenience stores: the THRIVE community-based participatory research study.
      ,
      • Hardin-Fanning F.
      • Gokun Y.
      Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.
      ,
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Kim E.M.
      • He S.
      • Pardilla M.
      A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.
      ,
      • Jilcott Pitts S.B.
      • Wu Q.
      • Truesdale K.P.
      • et al.
      One-year follow-up examination of the impact of the North Carolina healthy food small retailer program on healthy food availability, purchases, and consumption.
      ,
      • Budd N.
      • Jeffries J.K.
      • Jones-Smith J.
      • Kharmats A.
      • McDermott A.Y.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.
      Foods containing whole grains
      • Gittelsohn J.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Poirier L.
      • et al.
      The impact of a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthy food availability, sales, and purchasing in a low-income urban area.
      • Trude A.C.B.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Cheskin L.J.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth.
      • Trude A.C.
      • Surkan P.J.
      • Anderson Steeves E.
      • Pollack Porter K.
      • Gittelsohn J.
      The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers.
      • Cavanaugh E.
      • Green S.
      • Mallya G.
      • Tierney A.
      • Brensinger C.
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