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Effect of Dietary Acetic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Glucose, Lipid Profiles, and Body Mass Index in Human Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Published:January 09, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.12.002

      Abstract

      Background

      Acetic acid is a short-chain fatty acid that has demonstrated biomedical potential as a dietary therapeutic agent for the management of chronic and metabolic illness comorbidities. In human beings, its consumption may improve glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity in individuals with cardiometabolic conditions and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Published clinical trial evidence evaluating its sustained supplementation effects on metabolic outcomes is inconsistent.

      Objective

      This systematic review and meta-analysis summarized available evidence on potential therapeutic effects of dietary acetic acid supplementation via consumption of acetic acid–rich beverages and food sources on metabolic and anthropometric outcomes.

      Methods

      A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science from database inception until October 2020. Randomized controlled trials conducted in adults evaluating the effect of dietary acetic acid supplementation for a minimum of 1 week were included. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model on fasting blood glucose (FBG), triacylglycerol (TAG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by calculation of Q and I2 statistics, and publication bias was assessed by calculation of Egger’s regression asymmetry and Begg’s test.

      Results

      Sixteen studies were included, involving 910 participants who consumed between 750 and 3600 mg acetic acid daily in interventions lasting an average of 8 weeks. Dietary acetic acid supplementation resulted in significant reductions in TAG concentrations in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy individuals (mean difference [MD] = −20.51 mg/dL [95% confidence intervals = −32.98, −8.04], P = .001) and people with type 2 diabetes (MD = −7.37 mg/dL [−10.15, −4.59], P < .001). Additionally, acetic acid supplementation significantly reduced FBG levels (MD = −35.73 mg/dL [−63.79, −7.67], P = .01) in subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with placebo and low-dose comparators. No other changes were seen for other metabolic or anthropometric outcomes assessed. Five of the 16 studies did not specify the dose of acetic acid delivered, and no studies measured blood acetate concentrations. Only one study controlled for background acetic acid-rich food consumption during intervention periods. Most studies had an unclear or high risk of bias.

      Conclusion

      Supplementation with dietary acetic acid is well tolerated, has no adverse side effects, and has clinical potential to reduce plasma TAG and FBG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and to reduce TAG levels in people who are overweight or obese. No significant effects of dietary acetic acid consumption were seen on HbA1c, HDL, or anthropometric markers. High-quality, longer-term studies in larger cohorts are required to confirm whether dietary acetic acid can act as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in metabolic comorbidities management.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      D. S. Valdes is a PhD student, Be Active Sleep and Eat (BASE) Facility, Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Notting Hill, Australia.

      Biography

      D. So is a PhD student, Department of Gastroenterology, Central Clinical School, Monash University and Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

      Biography

      P. A. Gill is a Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Gastroenterology, and is a postdoctoral researcher, Department of Immunology and Pathology, Central Clinical School, Monash University and Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

      Biography

      N. J. Kellow is a senior lecturer, Be Active Sleep and Eat (BASE) Facility, Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Notting Hill, Australia.

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