Advertisement

Diabetes Self-management Education and Support in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Consensus Report of the American Diabetes Association, the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of PAs, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, and the American Pharmacists Association

      This article is being published simultaneously in Diabetes Care, The Diabetes Educator, the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, the Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, and the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. See page 13 for additional resources.
      Supplementary materials: Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 are available at www.jandonline.orgDiabetes is a complex and challenging disease that requires daily self-management decisions made by the person with diabetes. Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) addresses the comprehensive blend of clinical, educational, psychosocial, and behavioral aspects of care needed for daily self-management and provides the foundation to help all people with diabetes navigate their daily self-care with confidence and improved outcomes.
      American Diabetes Association
      5. Facilitating behavior change and well-being to improve health outcomes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2020.
      ,
      • Davies M.J.
      • D’Alessio D.A.
      • Fradkin J.
      • et al.
      Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • American Diabetes Association
        5. Facilitating behavior change and well-being to improve health outcomes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2020.
        Diabetes Care. 2020; 43: S48-S65
        • Davies M.J.
        • D’Alessio D.A.
        • Fradkin J.
        • et al.
        Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).
        Diabetes Care. 2018; 41: 2669-2701
        • Lin J.
        • Thompson T.J.
        • Cheng Y.J.
        • et al.
        Projection of the future diabetes burden in the United States through 2060.
        Popul Health Metr. 2018; 16: 9
        • American Diabetes Association
        2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2020.
        Diabetes Care. 2020; 43: S14-S31
        • American Diabetes Association
        Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2017.
        Diabetes Care. 2018; 41: 917-928
        • Kazemian P.
        • Shebl F.M.
        • McCann N.
        • Walensky R.P.
        • Wexler D.J.
        Evaluation of the cascade of diabetes care in the United States, 2005-2016.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2019; 179: 1376-1385
        • Berwick D.M.
        • Nolan T.W.
        • Whittington J.
        The triple aim: care, health, and cost.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2008; 27: 759-769
        • American Diabetes Association
        Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2020.
        Diabetes Care. 2020; 43: S1-S212
        • Funnell M.M.
        Patient empowerment: what does it really mean?.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2016; 99: 1921-1922
        • American Diabetes Association
        Overcoming therapeutic inertia [Internet].
        (Accessed 3 September 2019. Available from)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Social determinants of health [Internet], 2019.
        (Accessed 30 March 2020. Available from)
        • Powers M.A.
        • Bardsley J.
        • Cypress M.
        • et al.
        Diabetes self-management education and supportintype2diabetes:ajointpositionstatement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
        Diabetes Care. 2015; 38: 1372-1382
        • Steinsbekk A.
        • Rygg L.Ø.
        • Lisulo M.
        • Rise M.B.
        • Fretheim A.
        Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2012; 12: 213
        • Tshiananga J.K.T.
        • Kocher S.
        • Weber C.
        • Erny Albrecht K.
        • Berndt K.
        • Neeser K.
        The effect of nurse-led diabetes self-management education on glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular riskfactors: a meta-analysis.
        Diabetes Educ. 2012; 38: 108-123
        • Deakin T.
        • McShane C.E.
        • Cade J.E.
        • Williams R.D.R.R.
        Group based training for self-management strategies in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; : CD003417
        • Chrvala C.A.
        • Sherr D.
        • Lipman R.D.
        Diabetes self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the effect on glycemic control.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2016; 99: 926-943
        • Powers M.A.
        2016 Health Care & Education Presidential Address: If DSME were a pill, would you prescribe it?.
        Diabetes Care. 2016; 39: 2101-2107
        • Nathan D.M.
        • Genuth S.
        • Lachin J.
        • et al.
        • Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group
        The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 977-986
        • Stratton I.M.
        • Adler A.I.
        • Neil H.A.W.
        • et al.
        Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study.
        BMJ. 2000; 321: 405-412
        • He X.
        • Li J.
        • Wang B.
        • et al.
        Diabetes self-management education reduces risk of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Endocrine. 2017; 55: 712-731
        • Cooke D.
        • Bond R.
        • Lawton J.
        • et al.
        • U.K. NIHR DAFNE Study Group
        Structured type 1 diabetes education delivered within routine care: impact on glycemic control and diabetes-specific quality of life.
        Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 270-272
        • Cochran J.
        • Conn V.S.
        Meta-analysis of quality of life outcomes following diabetes self-management training.
        Diabetes Educ. 2008; 34: 815-823
        • Toobert D.J.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        • Strycker L.A.
        • et al.
        Biologic and quality-of-life outcomes from the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program: a randomized clinical trial.
        Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 2288-2293
        • Toobert D.J.
        • Strycker L.A.
        • King D.K.
        • Barrera Jr., M.
        • Osuna D.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        Long-term outcomes from a multiple-risk-factor diabetes trial for Latinas: ¡Viva Bien!.
        Transl Behav Med. 2011; 1: 416-426
        • Tang T.S.
        • Funnell M.M.
        • Oh M.
        Lasting effects of a 2-year diabetes self-management support intervention: outcomes at 1-year follow-up.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2012; 9: E109
        • Thorpe C.T.
        • Fahey L.E.
        • Johnson H.
        • Deshpande M.
        • Thorpe J.M.
        • Fisher E.B.
        Facilitating healthy coping in patients with diabetes: a systematic review.
        Diabetes Educ. 2013; 39: 33-52
        • Fisher L.
        • Hessler D.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        • et al.
        REDEEM: a pragmatic trial to reduce diabetes distress.
        Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 2551-2558
        • Duncan I.
        • Ahmed T.
        • Li Q.E.
        • et al.
        Assessing the value of the diabetes educator.
        Diabetes Educ. 2011; 37: 638-657
        • Pillay J.
        • Armstrong M.J.
        • Butalia S.
        • et al.
        Behavioral programs for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
        Ann Intern Med. 2015; 163: 848-860
        • Robbins J.M.
        • Thatcher G.E.
        • Webb D.A.
        • Valdmanis V.G.
        Nutritionist visits, diabetes classes, and hospitalization rates and charges: the Urban Diabetes Study.
        Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 655-660
        • Strawbridge L.M.
        • Lloyd J.T.
        • Meadow A.
        • Riley G.F.
        • Howell B.L.
        One-year outcomes of diabetes self-management training among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed with diabetes.
        Med Care. 2017; 55: 391-397
        • Healy S.J.
        • Black D.
        • Harris C.
        • Lorenz A.
        • Dungan K.M.
        Inpatient diabetes education is associated with less frequent hospital readmission among patients with poor glycemic control.
        Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 2960-2967
        • Nassar C.M.
        • Montero A.
        • Magee M.F.
        inpatient diabetes education in the real world: an overview of guidelines and delivery models.
        Curr Diab Rep. 2019; 19: 103
        • Horigan G.
        • Davies M.
        • Findlay-White F.
        • Chaney D.
        • Coates V.
        Reasons why patients referred to diabetes education programmes choose not to attend: a systematic review.
        Diabet Med. 2017; 34: 14-26
        • Greenwood D.A.
        • Gee P.M.
        • Fatkin K.J.
        • Peeples M.
        A systematic review of reviews evaluating technology-enabled diabetes self-management education and support.
        J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017; 11: 1015-1027
        • Litchman M.L.
        • Rothwell E.
        • Edelman L.S.
        The diabetes online community: older adults supporting self-care through peer health.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2018; 101: 518-523
        • Litchman M.L.
        • Walker H.R.
        • Ng A.H.
        • et al.
        State of the science: a scoping review and gap analysis of diabetes online communities.
        J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2019; 13: 466-492
        • Siminerio L.
        • HammM
        • Kanter J.
        • Cameron F.A.
        • Krall J.
        A diabetes education model in primary care: provider and staff perspectives.
        Diabetes Educ. 2019; 45: 498-506
        • Bowen M.E.
        • Rothman R.L.
        Multidisciplinary management of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents.
        J Multidiscip Healthc. 2010; 3: 113-124
        • Beck J.
        • Greenwood D.A.
        • Blanton L.
        • et al.
        • 2017 Standards Revision Task Force
        2017 National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.
        Diabetes Care. 2017; 40: 1409-1419
        • Norris S.L.
        • Lau J.
        • Smith S.J.
        • Schmid C.H.
        • Engelgau M.M.
        Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control.
        Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 1159-1171
        • Tang T.S.
        • Funnell M.
        • Sinco B.
        • et al.
        Comparative effectiveness of peer leaders and community health workers in diabetes self-management support: results of a randomized controlled trial.
        Diabetes Care. 2014; 37: 1525-1534
        • Thom D.H.
        • Ghorob A.
        • Hessler D.
        • De Vore D.
        • Chen E.
        • Bodenheimer T.A.
        Impact of peer health coaching on glycemic control in low-income patients with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
        Ann Fam Med. 2013; 11: 137-144
        • Tang T.S.
        • Ayala G.X.
        • Cherrington A.
        • Rana G.
        A review of volunteer-based peer support interventions in diabetes.
        Diabetes Spectr. 2011; 24: 85-98
        • Funnell M.M.
        Peer-based behavioural strategies to improve chronic disease self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research.
        Fam Pract. 2010; 27: i17-i22
        • Heisler M.
        Overview of peer support models to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes.
        Diabetes Spectr. 2007; 20: 214-221
        • Kovacs Burns K.
        • Nicolucci A.
        • Holt R.I.G.
        • et al.
        • DAWN2 Study Group
        Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2TM): cross-national benchmarking indicators for family members living with people with diabetes.
        Diabet Med. 2013; 30: 778-788
        • Peyrot M.
        • Burns K.K.
        • Davies M.
        • et al.
        Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs 2 (DAWN2): a multinational, multi-stakeholder study of psychosocial issues in diabetes and person-centred diabetes care.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013; 99: 174-184
        • Lee A.A.
        • Piette J.D.
        • Heisler M.
        • Rosland A.-M.
        Diabetes distress and glycemic control: the buffering effect of autonomy support from important family members and friends.
        Diabetes Care. 2018; 41: 1157-1163
        • Whitehead L.
        • Jacob E.
        • Towell A.
        • Abu-Qamar M.
        • Cole-Heath A.
        The role of the family in supporting the self-management of chronic conditions: A qualitative systematic review.
        J Clin Nurs. 2018; 27: 22-30
        • Lee A.A.
        • Piette J.D.
        • Heisler M.
        • Janevic M.R.
        • Langa K.M.
        • Rosland A.-M.
        Family members’ experiences supporting adults with chronic illness: a national survey.
        Fam Syst Health. 2017; 35: 463-473
        • Pearson T.L.
        • Bardsley J.
        • Weiner S.
        • Kolb L.
        Population health: the diabetes educator’ sevolving role.
        Diabetes Educ. 2019; 45: 333-348
      1. Childs B.P. Cypress M. Spollett G. Complete Nurse’s Guide to Diabetes Care. 3rd ed. American Diabetes Association, Arlington, VA2017
        • American Association of Diabetes Educators
        An effective model of diabetes care and education: revising the AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors®.
        Diabetes Educ. 2020; 46: 139-160
        • Coulter A.
        • Entwistle V.A.
        • Eccles A.
        • Ryan S.
        • Shepperd S.
        • Perera R.
        Personalised care planning for adults with chronic or long-term health conditions.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; : CD010523
        • Funnell M.M.
        • Bootle S.
        • Stuckey H.L.
        The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study.
        Clin Diabetes. 2015; 33: 32-36
        • Peters A.L.
        • Laffel L.
        • American Diabetes Association
        • JDRF
        American Diabetes Association/JDRF Type 1 Diabetes Sourcebook.
        American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA2013
        • Skovlund S.E.
        • Peyrot M.
        The Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) program: a new approach to improving outcomes of diabetes care.
        Diabetes Spectr. 2005; 18: 136-142
        • Nicolucci A.
        • Kovacs Burns K.
        • Holt R.I.G.
        • et al.
        • DAWN2 Study Group
        Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2TM): cross-national benchmarking of diabetes-related psychosocial outcomes for people with diabetes.
        Diabet Med. 2013; 30: 767-777
        • American Diabetes Association
        4. Comprehensive medical evaluation and assessment of comorbidities: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2020.
        Diabetes Care. 2020; 43: S37-S47
        • Weiss M.A.
        • Funnell M.M.
        In the beginning: setting the stage for effective diabetes care.
        Clin Diabetes. 2009; 27: 149-151
        • Beverly E.A.
        • Ganda O.P.
        • Ritholz M.D.
        • et al.
        Look who’s (not) talking: diabetic patients’ willingness to discuss self-care with physicians.
        Diabetes Care. 2012; 35: 1466-1472
        • Ritholz M.D.
        • Beverly E.A.
        • Brooks K.M.
        • Abrahamson M.J.
        • Weinger K.
        Barriers and facilitators to self-care communication during medical appointments in the United States for adults with type 2 diabetes.
        Chronic Illn. 2014; 10: 303-313
        • Yehl K.
        AADE Practice Paper in Brief: Diabetes educators play a critical role in successful insulin management.
        AADE Pract. 2018; 6: 36-37
        • Young-Hyman D.
        • de Groot M.
        • Hill-Briggs F.
        • Gonzalez J.S.
        • Hood K.
        • Peyrot M.
        Psychosocial care for people with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association.
        Diabetes Care. 2016; 39: 2126-2140
        • Peyrot M.
        • Rubin R.R.
        • Lauritzen T.
        • Snoek F.J.
        • Matthews D.R.
        • Skovlund S.E.
        Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study.
        Diabet Med. 2005; 22: 1379-1385
        • Perrin N.E.
        • Davies M.J.
        • Robertson N.
        • Snoek F.J.
        • Khunti K.
        The prevalence of diabetes-specific emotional distress in people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Diabet Med. 2017; 34: 1508-1520
        • Gonzalvo J.D.
        • Hamm J.
        • Eaves S.
        • et al.
        Apractical approach to mental health for the diabetes educator.
        AADE Pract. 2019; 7: 29-44
        • Franz M.J.
        • MacLeod J.
        • Evert A.
        • et al.
        Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics nutrition practice guideline for type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults: systematic review of evidence for medical nutrition therapy effectiveness and recommendations for integration into the nutrition care process.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117: 1659-1679
        • Evert A.B.
        • Dennison M.
        • Gardner C.D.
        • et al.
        Nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or prediabetes: a consensus report.
        Diabetes Care. 2019; 42: 731-754
        • Marincic P.Z.
        • Hardin A.
        • Salazar M.V.
        • Scott S.
        • Fan S.X.
        • Gaillard P.R.
        Diabetes self-management education and medical nutrition therapy improve patient outcomes: a pilot study documenting the efficacy of registered dietitian nutritionist interventions through retrospective chart review.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117: 1254-1264
        • Briggs Early K.
        • Stanley K.
        Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: The role of medical nutrition therapy and registered dietitian nutritionists in the prevention and treatment of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018; 118: 343-353
        • Li R.
        • Shrestha S.S.
        • Lipman R.
        • Burrows N.R.
        • Kolb L.E.
        • Rutledge S.
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
        Diabetes self-management education and training among privately insured persons with newly diagnosed diabetes-United States, 2011-2012.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014; 63: 1045-1049
        • Strawbridge L.M.
        • Lloyd J.T.
        • Meadow A.
        • Riley G.F.
        • Howell B.L.
        Use of Medicare’s diabetes self-management training benefit.
        Health Educ Behav. 2015; 42: 530-538
        • Rinker J.
        • Dickinson J.K.
        • Litchman M.L.
        • et al.
        The 2017 diabetes educator and the Diabetes Self-Management Education National Practice Survey.
        Diabetes Educ. 2018; 44: 260-268
        • Carey M.E.
        • Agarwal S.
        • Horne R.
        • Davies M.
        • Slevin M.
        • Coates V.
        Exploring organizational support for the provision of structured self-management education for people with type 2 diabetes: findings from a qualitative study.
        Diabet Med. 2019; 36: 761-770
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support (DSMES) Toolkit [Internet], 2018.
        (Accessed 3 September 2019. Available from)
        • Peyrot M.
        • Rubin R.R.
        • Funnell M.M.
        • Siminerio L.M.
        Access to diabetes self-management education: results of national surveys of patients, educators, and physicians.
        Diabetes Educ. 2009; 35 (252–256, 258–263): 246-248
        • Lawal M.
        • Woodman A.
        • Fanghanel J.
        • Ohl M.
        Barriers to attendance at diabetes education centres: perceptions of education providers.
        J Diabetes Nurs. 2017; 21: 61-66
        • Azam L.S.
        • Jackson T.A.
        • Knudson P.E.
        • Meurer J.R.
        • Tarima S.S.
        Use of secondary clinical data for research related to diabetes self-management education.
        Res Social Adm Pharm. 2017; 13: 494-502
        • Chapman E.N.
        • Kaatz A.
        • Carnes M.
        Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2013; 28: 1504-1510
        • Winkley K.
        • Evwierhoma C.
        • Amiel S.A.
        • Lempp H.K.
        • Ismail K.
        • Forbes A.
        Patient explanations for non-attendance at structured diabetes education sessions for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study.
        Diabet Med. 2015; 32: 120-128
        • World Health Organization
        About social determinants of health [Internet].
        (Accessed 28 January 2020. Available from)
        • Harris S.
        • Mulnier H.
        • Amiel S.
        The Barriers to Uptake of Diabetes Education study (Abstract).
        Lancet. 2017; 389: S44
        • Ross S.
        • Benavides-Vaello S.
        • Schumann L.
        • Haberman M.
        Issues that impact type-2 diabetes self-management in rural communities.
        J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2015; 27: 653-660
        • Gonzales K.L.
        • Lambert W.E.
        • Fu R.
        • Jacob M.
        • Harding A.K.
        Perceived racial discrimination in health care, completion of standard diabetes services, and diabetes control among a sample of American Indian women.
        Diabetes Educ. 2014; 40: 747-755
        • Jones V.
        • Crowe M.
        How people from ethnic minorities describe their experiences of managing type-2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative metasynthesis.
        Int J Nurs Stud. 2017; 76: 78-91
        • Hill-Briggs F.
        2018 Health Care & Education Presidential Address: The American Diabetes Association in the era of health care transformation.
        Diabetes Care. 2019; 42: 352-358
        • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
        Diabetic Self-Management Training (DSMT) Accreditation Program [Internet].
        (Accessed 4 December 2019. Available from)
      2. Does Medicare Cover Medical Nutrition Therapy? [Internet].
        (Accessed 4 December 2019. Available from)
        • Cusack C.M.
        • Knudson A.D.
        • Kronstadt J.L.
        • Singer R.F.
        • Brown A.L.
        Practice-Based Population Health: Information Technology to Support Transformation to Proactive Primary Care.
        Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD2010 (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0092-EF [Internet]. Accessed 3 September 2019. Available from)
        • Siminerio L.
        • Ruppert K.
        • Huber K.
        • Toledo F.G.S.
        Telemedicine for Reach, Education, Access, and Treatment (TREAT): linking telemedicine with diabetes self-management education to improve care in rural communities.
        Diabetes Educ. 2014; 40: 797-805
        • Phillips L.S.
        • Barb D.
        • Yong C.
        • et al.
        Translating what works: a new approach to improve diabetes management.
        J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015; 9: 857-864
        • Shea S.
        • Weinstock R.S.
        • Teresi J.A.
        • et al.
        • IDEATel Consortium
        A randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes mellitus: 5 year results of the IDEATel study.
        J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009; 16: 446-456
        • Hunt J.S.
        • Siemienczuk J.
        • Gillanders W.
        • et al.
        The impact of a physician-directed health information technology system on diabetes outcomes in primary care: a pre- and post-implementation study.
        Inform Prim Care. 2009; 17: 165-174
        • Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America
        Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century [Internet].
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2001 (Accessed 1 October 2019. Available from)
        • Fisher L.
        • Hessler D.M.
        • Polonsky W.H.
        • Mullan J.
        When is diabetes distress clinically meaningful?: establishing cut points for the Diabetes Distress Scale.
        Diabetes Care. 2012; 35: 259-264
        • Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists
        Repositioning the Specialty and Association [Internet].
        (Accessed 15 November 2019. Available from)
        • NDBDE
        What is a CDE? Certification Info, Diabetes Education, Certification, Examination [Internet].
        (Accessed 15 November 2019. Available from)
        • Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists
        Board Certified-Advanced Diabetes Management (BC-ADM) [Internet].
        (Accessed 15 November 2019. Available from)

      Biography

      M. A. Powers is with HealthPartners, Bloomington, MN.

      Biography

      J. K. Bardsley is with the Medstar Health Research Institute, MedStar Diabetes Institute, and MedStar Health System Nursing, Hyattsville, MD.

      Biography

      M. Cypress is an independent Independent consultant, Albuquerque, NM.

      Biography

      M. M. Funnell is with the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.

      Biography

      D. Harms is with MercyOne Clive Internal Medicine, Clive, IA.

      Biography

      A. Hess-Fischl is with the Section of Adult and Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      B. Hooks is with Martin Army Community Hospital, Fort Benning, GA.

      Biography

      D. Isaacs is with the Cleveland Clinic Diabetes Center, Cleveland, OH.

      Biography

      E. D. Mandell is with Johnson & Wales University, Providence, RI.

      Biography

      M. D. Maryniuk is with Maryniuk & Associates, Boston, MA.

      Biography

      A. Norton is with DiabetesSisters, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      J. Rinker is with the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      S. Uelmen is with the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      L. M. Siminerio is with the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.