Dietary Quality and Usual Intake of Underconsumed Nutrients and Related Food Groups Differ by Food Security Status for Rural, Midwestern Food Pantry Clients

      Abstract

      Background

      Food pantry users represent a predominantly food insecure population, yet dietary intake may differ among food secure (FS), low FS, and very low FS clients. Usual intake of food groups and nutrients by food security status has not previously been compared among food pantry clients.

      Objective

      This study aimed to estimate the usual intakes of underconsumed nutrients (ie, potassium; dietary fiber; choline; magnesium; calcium; vitamins A, D, E, and C; and iron) and related food groups (ie, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and dairy) and dietary quality, and to evaluate their relationship with food security status.

      Design

      This cross-sectional, secondary analysis used baseline data from a prior intervention study (Clinical Trial Registry: NCT03566095). A demographic questionnaire, the US Household Food Security Survey Module, and up to three 24-hour dietary recalls on nonconsecutive days, including weekdays and weekends, were collected.

      Participants/setting

      This community-based study included a convenience sample of adult, midwestern food pantry clients (N=579) recruited from August to November 2014.

      Main outcome measures

      Main outcomes evaluated were Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and usual intakes of underconsumed nutrients and related food groups.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Linear regression models and the National Cancer Institute method, adjusting for confounders, were used to estimate associations of food security with diet quality and usual intake, respectively.

      Results

      Being FS was associated with a higher whole grains HEI-2010 score and higher mean usual intake of whole grains compared with being low FS. Being FS was associated with higher usual intakes of iron and dairy compared with being very low FS. Being FS was associated with a higher mean usual intake of dark green vegetables compared with being low FS and very low FS. Usual intakes were below federal guidance for all subgroups of food security.

      Conclusions

      Although food security status may differentiate dietary intake among food pantry clients, improvements are needed among all clients.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      B. N. Wright is a postdoctoral fellow, Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      J. A. Tooze is a professor, Biostatistics and Data Science, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

      Biography

      R. L. Bailey is a professor, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      H. A. Eicher-Miller is an associate professor, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

      Biography

      Y. Liu is a clinical assistant professor, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo-The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.

      Biography

      R. L. Rivera is a postdoctoral research fellow, Public & Population Health Informatics, Indiana University Richard M Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, IN.

      Biography

      L. McCormack is an associate professor, Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.

      Biography

      S. Stluka is Extension Food & Families Program director, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD.

      Biography

      L. Franzen-Castle is an associate professor and extension nutrition specialist, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

      Biography

      B. Henne is an associate program leader, Michigan State University Extension, Eaton County Extension Office, Charlotte, MI.

      Biography

      D. Mehrle is an Extension specialist, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

      Biography

      D. Remley is an associate professor, Extension, Ohio State University, Piketon, OH.