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Effect of Incorporating Genetic Testing Results into Nutrition Counseling and Care on Dietary Intake: An Evidence Analysis Center Systematic Review—Part I

      Abstract

      Consumer interest in personalized nutrition based on nutrigenetic testing is growing. Recently, multiple, randomized controlled trials have sought to understand whether incorporating genetic information into dietary counseling alters dietary outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to examine how incorporating genetic information into nutrition counseling and care, compared to an alternative intervention or control group, impacts dietary outcomes. This is the first of a 2-part systematic review series. Part II reports anthropometric, biochemical, and disease-specific outcomes. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials were identified through a systematic literature search of multiple databases, screened for eligibility, and critically reviewed and synthesized. Conclusion statements were graded to determine quality of evidence for each dietary outcome reported. Reported outcomes include intake of total energy and macronutrients, micronutrients, foods, food groups, food components (added sugar, caffeine, and alcohol), and composite diet scores. Ten articles representing 8 unique randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria. Of 15 conclusion statements (evidence grades: Weak to Moderate), 13 concluded there was no significant effect of incorporating genetic information into nutrition counseling/care on dietary outcomes. Limited data suggested that carriers of higher-risk gene variants were more likely than carriers of low-risk gene variants to significantly reduce intake of sodium and alcohol in response to nutrition counseling that incorporated genetic results. Included studies differed in quality, selected genetic variants, timing and intensity of intervention, sample size, dietary assessment tools, and population characteristics. Therefore, strong conclusions could not be drawn. Collaboration between the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and professional nutrigenetic societies would likely prove valuable in prioritizing which genetic variants and targeted nutrition messages have the most potential to alter dietary outcomes in a given patient subpopulation and, thus, should be the targets of future research.
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      Biography

      K. Robinson is a medical science liaison, Scientific and Medical Affairs, Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH; at the time of the study, she was a postdoctoral researcher, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

      Biography

      M. Rozga is a nutrition researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Evidence Analysis Center, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      A. Braakhuis is an academic director, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, Discipline of Nutrition, The University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand.

      Biography

      A. Ellis is an associate professor, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.

      Biography

      C. R. Monnard is a specialist in infant nutrition, Société des Produits Nestlé SA, Nestlé Research, Lausanne, Switzerland; at the time of the study, she was a postdoctoral fellow, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

      Biography

      R. Sinley is an assistant professor, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO.

      Biography

      A. Wanner is an information specialist consultant, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.

      Biography

      A. J. Vargas is a scientist, National Institutes of Health, Office of Disease Prevention, Rockville, MD.

      Linked Article

      • Response to the Consensus Report of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Incorporating Genetic Testing into Nutrition Care
        Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and DieteticsVol. 120Issue 12
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          It is our pleasure to engage with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in this important discussion on the impact of incorporating genetic testing into nutrition care. We reviewed, with interest, the Academy’s Consensus Report and companion papers detailing the conducted scoping and systematic reviews on the impact of genetic testing on dietary change and health outcomes.1-4 This work is of great importance, and we applaud the authors for encouraging registered dietitians to become involved in the research process1 in an effort to optimize pragmatic research in precision nutrition.
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