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Resistant Starch Has No Effect on Appetite and Food Intake in Individuals with Prediabetes

Published:April 09, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.01.017

      Abstract

      Background

      Type 2 resistant starch (RS2) has been shown to improve metabolic health outcomes and may increase satiety and suppress appetite and food intake in humans.

      Objective

      This study assessed whether 12 weeks of daily RS2 supplementation could influence appetite perception, food intake, and appetite-related gut hormones in adults with prediabetes, relative to the control (CTL) group.

      Design

      The study was a randomized controlled trial and analysis of secondary study end points.

      Participants/setting

      Sixty-eight adults (body mass index ≥27) aged 35 to 75 years with prediabetes were enrolled in the study at Pennington Biomedical Research Center (2012 to 2016). Fifty-nine subjects were included in the analysis.

      Intervention

      Participants were randomized to consume 45 g/day of high-amylose maize (RS2) or an isocaloric amount of the rapidly digestible starch amylopectin (CTL) for 12 weeks.

      Main outcome measures

      Subjective appetite measures were assessed via visual analogue scale and the Eating Inventory; appetite-related gut hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and ghrelin) were measured during a standard mixed-meal test; and energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by a laboratory food intake (buffet) test, the Remote Food Photography Method, and SmartIntake app.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Data were analyzed using linear mixed models, adjusting for treatment group and time as fixed effects, with a significance level of α=.05.

      Results

      RS2 had no effect on subjective measures of appetite, as assessed by visual analogue scale (P>0.05) and the Eating Inventory (P≥0.24), relative to the CTL group. There were no effects of RS2 supplementation on appetite-related gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (P=0.61), peptide YY (P=0.34), and both total (P=0.26) and active (P=0.47) ghrelin compared with the CTL. RS2 had no effect on total energy (P=0.30), carbohydrate (P=0.11), protein (P=0.64), or fat (P=0.37) consumption in response to a buffet meal test, relative to the CTL. In addition, total energy (P=0.40), carbohydrate (P=0.15), protein (P=0.46), and fat (P=0.53) intake, as quantified by the Remote Food Photography Method, were also unaffected by RS2, relative to the CTL.

      Conclusions

      RS2 supplementation did not increase satiety or reduce appetite and food intake in adults with prediabetes.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      U. White is an assistant professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

      Biography

      R. A. Beyl is an assistant professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

      Biography

      C. K. Martin is a professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

      Biography

      E. Ravussin is a professor, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

      Biography

      C. M. Peterson is an assistant professor, University of Alabama at Birmingham.