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Alcohol, Carbohydrate, and Calcium Intakes and Smoking Interactions with APOA5 rs662799 and rs2266788 were Associated with Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations in a Cross-Sectional Study of Korean Adults

Published:April 23, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.01.009

      Abstract

      Background

      Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations are markedly higher among Asians, which may be associated with the interaction of genetics and lifestyle factors.

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic variants that have a strong association with plasma TG concentrations from genome-wide association study and to identify lifestyle interactions with the genetic variants that are associated with dyslipidemia in a cohort of Korean adults.

      Design

      Korean genome and epidemiology study utilized a cross-sectional design of Koreans to determine genetic variants and lifestyle factors, including nutrient intakes, in a retrospective hospital-based city cohort conducted by the Korean Center for Disease and Control during 2004-2013.

      Participants

      Korean adults aged 40 to 77 years were participants (n=28,445).

      Main outcome measures

      The genetic variants that influence plasma TG concentrations were selected by genome-wide association study using an allele genetic model after adjusting for age, sex, area of residence, and body mass index. Lipid profiles and nutrient intakes from food frequency questionnaires were measured. The interactions between the single nucleotide polymorphisms and lifestyle factors were determined to influence plasma TG levels.

      Results

      Carrying the minor alleles of APOA5 rs662799 and rs2266788 had an association with higher plasma TG concentrations by 1.86- and 1.51-fold, respectively, compared with those with the major allele (P=8.89E-150 and P=4.75E-68, respectively). Sex had an interaction with these single nucleotide polymorphisms, with males having higher plasma TG concentrations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms had significant interactions with carbohydrate, fat, and calcium intakes; alcohol consumption; and smoking status that were associated with plasma TG concentrations. Carriers with the minor allele of each single nucleotide polymorphisms had higher plasma TG concentrations when consuming-low fat (<15%) and high carbohydrate (≥72%) diets than those with major alleles. Carriers of the minor alleles with low calcium intakes (<500 mg/day) experienced elevated plasma TG concentrations compared with carriers of the major alleles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers with either of the minor alleles of APOA5, rs662799 or rs2266788, had higher plasma TG concentrations than those with its major allele.

      Conclusions

      These results indicated that carrying the minor alleles of APOA5 rs662799 and rs2266788, especially for men, was associated with elevated TG concentrations and suggested that Korean carriers of the minor alleles could be at increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of modulating lifestyle factors to prevent dyslipidemia in people carrying the minor alleles of APOA5 rs662799 and rs2266788.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      S. Park is a professor of Food and Nutrition, Obesity/Diabetes Research Center, Hoseo University, ChungNam-Do, South Korea.

      Biography

      S. Kang is a researcher, Obesity/Diabetes Research Center, Hoseo University, ChungNam-Do, South Korea.