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Antioxidant Micronutrients and Essential Fatty Acids Supplementation on Cystic Fibrosis Outcomes: A Systematic Review

Published:April 02, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.01.007

      Abstract

      Background

      Antioxidant micronutrients and essential fatty acids supplementation intake appears to have a protective effect in some diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and asthma.

      Objective

      The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate the effects of these nutrients on nutritional and clinical outcomes of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

      Methods

      This is a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in CF. MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, and Scopus databases were searched for RCTs published from 1948 through February 2019. Two investigators independently reviewed the titles and abstracts and then extracted the data from the included studies using a standardized predesigned form. Two reviewers independently performed the quality assessment of the RCTs according to the Cochrane risk of bias tools.

      Results

      A total of 4,792 studies were identified, and 23 were eligible (8 antioxidant micronutrient and 15 essential fatty acids). The interventions found were beta-carotene, zinc, magnesium, multivitamin, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), linoleic acid and lipid matrix with choline supplementation. A significant improvement was observed in: (a) pulmonary function with magnesium (n=1) and essential fatty acids (n=2) supplementation; (b) less pulmonary exacerbations with beta-carotene (n=1), zinc (n=1), antioxidant-enriched multivitamin (n=1) and essential fatty acids (n=2) supplementation. One study with antioxidant-enriched multivitamin and four studies with EPA/DHA supplementation reported significant reductions in inflammatory markers. Nutritional status was not modified by antioxidants supplementation in any of the studies, while in five studies there was an improvement with fatty acids supplementation. The risk of bias of the majority of the parallel studies was high.

      Conclusions

      The benefits of antioxidants or DHA/EPA supplementation for CF, although observed in some studies, are not consistent enough to recommend routine use of these supplements. The mechanisms of action of these nutrients, dose levels and timing should be further explored in future studies.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      M. I. S. dos S. Simon is with Postgraduate Program in Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

      Biography

      P. J. C. Marostica is with Postgraduate Program in Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

      Biography

      R. Dalle Molle is with Faculty Inedi–Cesuca and Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

      Biography

      T. W. Rodrigues is a student with Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

      Biography

      M. Feldmann is a student with Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

      Biography

      F. M. Silva is with Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Brazil

      Biography

      G. C. Forte is with Programa de Pós-Graduação em Pediatria e Saúde da Criança, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.