Added Sugars Intake among US Infants and Toddlers

Published:November 14, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.09.007

      Abstract

      Background

      Limited information is available on added sugars consumption in US infants and toddlers.

      Objectives

      To present national estimates of added sugars intake among US infants and toddlers by sociodemographic characteristics, to identify top sources of added sugars, and to examine trends in added sugars intake.

      Design

      Cross-sectional analysis of 1 day of 24-hour dietary recall data.

      Participants/setting

      A nationally representative sample of US infants aged 0 to 11 months and toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=1,211) during the period from 2011 through 2016 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Trends were assessed from 2005-2006 through 2015-2016 (n=2,795).

      Main outcome measures

      Among infants and toddlers, the proportion consuming any added sugars, the average amount of added sugars consumed, percent of total energy from added sugars, and top sources of added sugars intake.

      Statistical analysis

      Paired t tests were used to compare differences by age, sex, race/Hispanic origin, family income level, and head of household education level. Trends were tested using orthogonal polynomials. Significance was set at P<0.05.

      Results

      During 2011 to 2016, 84.4% of infants and toddlers consumed added sugars on a given day. A greater proportion of toddlers (98.3%) consumed added sugars than infants (60.6%). The mean amount of added sugars toddlers consumed was also more compared with infants (5.8 vs 0.9 tsp). Non-Hispanic black toddlers (8.2 tsp) consumed more added sugars than non-Hispanic Asian (3.7 tsp), non-Hispanic white (5.3 tsp), and Hispanic (5.9 tsp) toddlers. A similar pattern was observed for percent energy from added sugars. For infants, top sources of added sugars were yogurt, baby food snacks/sweets, and sweet bakery products; top sources among toddlers were fruit drinks, sugars/sweets, and sweet bakery products. The mean amount of added sugars decreased from 2005-2006 through 2015-2016 for both age groups; however, percent energy from added sugars only decreased among infants.

      Conclusion

      Added sugars intake was observed among infants/toddlers and varied by age and race and Hispanic origin. Added sugars intake, as a percent of energy, decreased only among infants from 2005 to 2016.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      K. A, Herrick is an epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD.

      Biography

      C. D. Fryer is a health statistician, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD.

      Biography

      C. L. Ogden is branch chief and epidemiologist, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD.

      Biography

      H. C. Hamner is a health scientist, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

      Biography

      S. Park is lead epidemiologist, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.