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Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated with Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality among US Adults, What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

      Abstract

      Background

      Consuming salad is one strategy with the potential to harmonize diets more closely with national dietary guidance. However, it is not known whether nutrient intake and diet quality differ between people who consume vegetable-based salad and those who do not.

      Objective

      The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intake and diet quality between salad reporters and nonreporters.

      Design

      This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1 day of dietary intake data collected via 24-hour recall.

      Participants/setting

      Adults 20 years and older (n=9,678) in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 were included. Respondents who ate salad on the intake day were considered salad reporters.

      Main outcome measures

      This study estimated nutrient intake from all foods and beverages (excluding supplements) and evaluated diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015.

      Statistical analyses

      Nutrient intake and HEI scores were compared between salad reporters and nonreporters using paired t tests with regression adjustment for confounding variables. Results were considered significant at P<0.001.

      Results

      On the intake day, 23% of adults consumed salad. Energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes did not differ between salad reporters and nonreporters. Salad reporters had higher intakes than nonreporters of dietary fiber, total fat, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, B-6, C, E, K, folate, choline, magnesium, potassium, and sodium (P<0.001). Total HEI 2015 scores were significantly higher for reporters (56 of a possible 100 points) than nonreporters (50 points) P<0.001. Reporters also had significantly higher scores for eight of 13 HEI components: total vegetables, greens and beans, whole fruits, total protein foods, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, and added sugars (P<0.001).

      Conclusions

      Incorporating vegetable-based salad into one’s diet may be one effective way to increase nutrient intake and improve overall diet quality. Regardless of salad reporting status, HEI scores show that diets of US adults need improvement.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      M. K. Hoy is a nutritionist, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      R. S. Sebastian is a nutritionist, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      C. Wilkinson Enns is a nutritionist, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      J. D. Goldman is a mathematical statistician, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      A. J. Moshfegh is a supervisory nutritionist, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.