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Hyperglycemia and Carotenoid Intake Are Associated with Serum Carotenoids in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

      Abstract

      Background

      Serum carotenoids are commonly used as biomarkers of fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the general population. Although hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress, it is unknown whether this pathway is associated with lower serum carotenoid concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Consequently, the utility of serum carotenoids as markers of F/V intake in individuals with type 1 diabetes is unclear.

      Objective

      The study objectives were: 1) to investigate the relationship of glycemic control, oxidative stress, dietary carotenoid and F/V intake with serum carotenoid concentrations in youth with type 1 diabetes and 2) to determine whether glycemic control or oxidative stress moderates the association of carotenoid and F/V intake with serum carotenoids.

      Design

      The study was a secondary analysis of baseline data from youth with type 1 diabetes. Blood samples were drawn from youth with type 1 diabetes to assess carotenoids and markers of glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol); urine samples were used to assess oxidative stress (8-iso-prostaglandin F); and 3-day diet records completed by families were used to determine F/V and carotenoid intake.

      Participants/setting

      The study participants were youth with type 1 diabetes (n=136; age range: 8 to 16.9 years; diabetes duration ≥1 year; glycated hemoglobin: 5.8% to 11.9%) enrolled in a nutrition intervention trial from 2010 to 2013 at a tertiary diabetes center in Boston, MA.

      Main outcome measures

      Serum carotenoids (total carotenoids and α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein+zeaxanthin).

      Statistical analysis

      Regression analyses were used to estimate the association of glycemic control, oxidative stress, F/V and carotenoid intake with serum carotenoids, as well as the role of glycemic control and oxidative stress in moderating diet-serum carotenoid associations.

      Results

      Greater F/V intake (β=0.35, P<0.001) and carotenoid intake (β=0.28, P<0.01) were associated with higher total serum carotenoids, and no moderation by glycemic control or oxidative stress was observed. Greater hyperglycemia, as indicated by lower 1,5-anhydroglucitol (β=0.27, P<0.01), was related to lower serum carotenoids; however, glycated hemoglobin was not associated with serum carotenoids. 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α was not associated with glycemic control or serum carotenoids.

      Conclusions

      Findings support the validity of serum carotenoids as markers of F/V and carotenoid intake in youth with type 1 diabetes.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      N. Sanjeevi is a postdoctoral fellow, Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      L. M. Lipsky is a staff scientist, Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

      Biography

      T. R. Nansel is a senior investigator, Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.