NOTICE: We are experiencing technical issues with Academy members trying to log into the JAND site using Academy member login credentials. We are working to resolve the issue as soon as possible. Alternatively, if you are an Academy member, you can access the JAND site by registering for an Elsevier account and claiming access using the links at the top of the JAND site. Email us at [email protected] for assistance. Thanks for your patience!

Child and Adolescent Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intakes Are Longitudinally Associated with Higher Body Mass Index z Scores in a Birth Cohort Followed 17 Years

Published:January 09, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2018.11.003

      Abstract

      Background

      Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are considered a risk factor for obesity.

      Objective

      The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between the predictors of beverage and energy intakes and mean adequacy ratios (MARs), and the outcome of body mass index (BMI) z scores, in a birth cohort using longitudinal models.

      Design

      This was a longitudinal analysis of secondary data.

      Participants/setting

      Participants in the Iowa Fluoride and Iowa Bone Development Studies with two beverage intake questionnaires completed between ages 2 and 4.7 years or 5 and 8.5 years or one questionnaire between ages 9 and 10.5, 11 and 12.5, 13 and 14.5, or 15 and 17 years (n=720); two food and beverage diaries completed between ages 2 and 4.7 years or 5 and 8.5 years or completion of the Block’s Kids’ Food Frequency Questionnaires at age 11, 13, 15, or 17 years (n=623); and anthropometric measures at the corresponding age 5-, 9-, 11-, 13-, 15-, or 17-year examination(s).

      Predictors

      Mean daily 100% juice, milk, SSB, water/sugar-free beverage, and energy intakes and MARs averaged over ages 2 to 4.7, 5 to 8.5, 9 to 10.5, 11 to 12.5, 13 to 14.5, or 15 to 17 years were predictors.

      Outcome

      BMI z score was the outcome.

      Statistical analyses

      Linear mixed models were fit for each beverage, energy, and MAR variable, with the beverage, energy, or MAR variable as the predictor and BMI z score as the outcome. Beverage models were adjusted for energy and MAR and baseline socioeconomic status.

      Results

      SSB intake adjusted for energy intake, MAR, and baseline socioeconomic status was associated with BMI z score; each additional 8 oz SSB consumed/day throughout childhood and adolescence increased the BMI z score an average 0.050 units (95% CI 0.022 to 0.079; P=0.001). Adjusted water/sugar-free beverage intake (0.026 units; 95% CI 0.006 to 0.046; P=0.013) was modestly associated with BMI z score, while 100% juice (–0.001 units; 95% CI –0.059 to 0.057; P=0.97) and milk (0.022 units; 95% CI –0.007 to 0.052; P=0.13) intakes were not associated with BMI z scores.

      Conclusions

      Higher SSB intakes were associated with increased BMI z scores throughout childhood and adolescence in Iowa Fluoride Study participants. Public health initiatives targeting SSB consumption during childhood and adolescence remain relevant.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Lawman H.G.
        • et al.
        Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 through 2013-14.
        JAMA. 2016; 315: 2292-2299
        • Hales C.M.
        • Fryar C.D.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Freedman D.S.
        • Ogden C.L.
        Trends in obesity and severe obesity prevalence in US youth and adults by sex and age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016.
        JAMA. 2018; 319: 1723-1725
        • Skinner A.K.
        • Ravanbakht S.N.
        • Skelton J.A.
        • Perrin E.M.
        • Armstrong S.C.
        Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in US children, 1999-2016.
        Pediatrics. 2018; 141: e20173459
        • Buscot M.J.
        • Thomson R.J.
        • Juonala M.
        • et al.
        BMI trajectories associated with resolution of elevated youth BMI and incident adult obesity.
        Pediatrics. 2018; 141: e20172003
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Get the facts: Sugar-sweetened beverages and consumption.
        • Scharf R.J.
        • DeBoer M.D.
        Sugar-sweetened beverages and children’s health.
        Annu Rev Public Health. 2016; 37: 273-293
        • Torre S.B.D.
        • Keller A.
        • Depeyre J.L.
        • Kruseman M.
        Sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity risk in children and adolescents: A systematic analyses on how methodological quality may influence results.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 638-659
        • Luger M.
        • Lafontan M.
        • Bes-Rastrollo M.
        • Winzer E.
        • Yumuk V.
        • Farpour-Lambert N.
        Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: A systematic review from 2013 to 2015 and a comparison with previous studies.
        Obes Facts. 2017; 10: 674-693
        • Marshall T.A.
        • Van Buren J.M.
        • Warren J.J.
        • Cavanaugh J.E.
        • Levy S.M.
        Beverage consumption patterns at age 13-17 years are associated with weight, height and body mass index at age 17 years.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017; 117: 698-706
        • Warren J.J.
        • Levy S.A.
        • Kanellis M.J.
        Dental caries in the primary dentition: Assessing prevalence of cavitated and noncavitated lesions.
        J Public Health Dent. 2002; 62: 109-114
        • Janz K.F.
        • Gilmore J.M.
        • Burns T.L.
        • et al.
        Physical activity augments bone mineral accrual in young children: The IOWA Bone Development study.
        J Pediatr. 2006; 148: 793-799
        • Marshall T.A.
        • Eichenberger Gilmore J.M.
        • Broffitt B.
        • Levy S.M.
        • Stumbo P.G.
        Relative validation of a beverage frequency questionnaire in children ages 6 months through 5 years using 3-day food and beverage diaries.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 714-720
        • Marshall T.A.
        • Eichenberger Gilmore J.M.
        • Broffitt B.
        • Stumbo P.H.
        • Levy S.M.
        Relative validity of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the Block Kids’ Food Questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium and vitamin D intakes by children.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 465-472
        • Marshall T.A.
        • Curtis A.M.
        • Cavanaugh J.E.
        • Warren J.J.
        • Levy S.M.
        Higher longitudinal milk intakes are associated with increased height in a birth cohort followed for 17 years.
        J Nutr. 2018; 148: 1144-1149
        • Marshall T.A.
        • Eichenberger Gilmore J.M.
        • Broffitt B.
        • Stumbo P.J.
        • Levy S.M.
        Diet quality in young children is influenced by beverage consumption.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2005; 24: 65-75
        • US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
        1998. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 12. Nutrient Data Laboratory.
        (Accessed)
        • University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center
        Nutrition Data System for Research. Version 4.01.
        http://www.ncc.umn.edu/products/
        Date accessed: September 7, 2018
      1. Microsoft: Downloads Access Relational Database SR 1.
      2. NutritionQuest. Assessment and Analysis Services.
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Growth Chart Training: A SAS Program for the 2000 CDC Growth Charts (ages 0-<20 years). US Department of Health and Human Services.
        • Wang Y.
        • Chen H.J.
        Use of percentiles and z-scores in anthropometry.
        in: Preedy V.R. Handbook of Anthropometry. Springer, New York, NY2012: 29-48
      3. SAS. Analytics Software & Solutions [computer program]. Version 9.4.
        https://www.sas.com/en_us/software/sas9.html
        Date accessed: September 7, 2018
        • Welsh J.A.
        • Wang Y.
        • Figueroa J.
        • Brumme C.
        Sugar intake by type (added vs. naturally occurring) and physical form (liquid vs. solid) and its varying association with children’s body weight, NHANES 2009-2014.
        Pediatr Obes. 2018; 13: 213-221
        • Williams R.D.
        • Housman J.M.
        • Odum M.
        • Rivera A.E.
        Energy drink use linked to high-sugar beverage intake and BMI among teens.
        Am J Health Behav. 2017; 41: 259-265
        • Laverty A.A.
        • Magee L.
        • Monteiro C.A.
        • Saxena S.
        • Millett C.
        Sugar and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity changes: National longitudinal study.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015; 12: 137
        • Malik V.S.
        • Pan A.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Hu F.B.
        Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: A systematic review and meta-analyses.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98: 1084-1102
        • Millar L.
        • Rowland B.
        • Nichols M.
        • et al.
        Relationship between raised BMI and sugar sweetened beverage and high fat food consumption among children.
        Obesity. 2014; 22: E96-E103
        • Zheng M.
        • Allman-Farinelli M.
        • Heitmann B.L.
        • et al.
        Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children.
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015; 28: 70-79
        • Zheng M.
        • Rangan A.
        • Olsen N.J.
        • et al.
        Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in relation to changes in body fatness over 6 and 12 years among 9-year-old children: The European Youth Heart Study.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68: 77-83
        • Striegel-Moore R.H.
        • Thompson D.
        • Affenito S.G.
        • et al.
        Correlates of beverage intake in adolescent girls: The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.
        J Pediatr. 2006; 148: 183-187
        • Auerbach B.J.
        • Wolf F.M.
        • Hikida A.
        • et al.
        Fruit juice and change in BMI: A meta-analyses.
        Pediatrics. 2017; 139: e20162454
        • Hasnain S.R.
        • Singer M.R.
        • Bradlee M.L.
        • Moore L.L.
        Beverage intake in early childhood and change in body fat from preschool to adolescence.
        Child Obes. 2014; 10: 42-49
        • Sonneville K.R.
        • Long M.W.
        • Rifas-Shiman S.L.
        • Kleinman K.
        • Gillman M.W.
        • Taveras E.M.
        Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?.
        Obesity. 2015; 23: 170-176
        • O’Sullivan T.A.
        • Bremner A.P.
        • Bremer H.K.
        • et al.
        Dairy product consumption, dietary nutrient and energy density and associations with obesity in Australian adolescents.
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015; 28: 452-464
        • Vogel K.A.
        • Martin B.R.
        • McCabe L.D.
        • et al.
        The effect of dairy intake on bone mass and body composition in early pubertal girls and boys: A randomized controlled trial.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2017; 105: 1214-1229
        • Marabujo T.
        • Ramos E.
        • Lopes C.
        Dairy products and total calcium intake at 13 years of age and its association with obesity at 21 years of age.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018; 72: 541-547
        • Beck A.L.
        • Heyman M.
        • Chao C.
        • Wojcicki J.
        Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos.
        Prev Med Rep. 2017; 23: 1-5
        • DeBoer M.D.
        • Agard H.E.
        • Scharf R.J.
        Milk intake, height and body mass index in preschool children.
        Arch Dis Child. 2015; 100: 460-465
        • Kant A.K.
        • Graubard B.I.
        • Atchinson E.A.
        Intakes of plain water, moisture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult U.S. population—Nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2006.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90: 655-663
        • Rosinger A.Y.
        • Lawman H.G.
        • Akinbami L.J.
        • Ogden C.L.
        The role of obesity in the relation between total water intake and urine osmolality in U.S. adults, 2009-2012.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 104: 1554-1561
        • Daniels M.C.
        • Popkin B.M.
        The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: A systematic review.
        Nutr Rev. 2010; 68: 505-521
        • Walton J.
        • O’Connor L.
        • Flynn A.
        Cross-sectional association of dietary water intakes and sources, and adiposity: National Adult Nutrition Survey, the Republic of Ireland.
        Eur J Nutr [published online ahead of print March 29, 2018]. 2018; (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1635-z.)
        • Drenowsi A.
        • Rehm C.D.
        • Constant F.
        Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: Analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data.
        Nutr J. 2013; 19: 85
        • Fulgoni V.L.
        • Quann E.E.
        National trends in beverage consumption in children from birth to 5 years: Analyses of NHANES across three decades.
        Nutr J. 2012; 11: 92
        • Bleich S.N.
        • Vercammen K.A.
        • Koma J.W.
        • Li Z.
        Trends in beverage consumption among children and adults, 2003-2014.
        Obesity. 2018; 26: 432-441
      4. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. US Department of Agriculture.
        • Heyman M.B.
        • Abrams S.A.
        AAP Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, AAP Committee on Nutrition. Fruit juice in infants, children and adolescents: Current recommendations.
        Pediatrics. 2017; 139: e20170967
        • MyPlate. US
        Department of Agriculture.
        http://www.choosemyplate.gov/
        Date accessed: April 17, 2018

      Biography

      T. A. Marshall is a professor, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.

      Biography

      A. M. Curtis is a graduate student, Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.

      Biography

      J. E. Cavanaugh is a professor, Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health and Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.

      Biography

      J. J. Warren is a professor, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.

      Biography

      S. M. Levy is a professor, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City.