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Diet Quality Is an Indicator of Disease Risk Factors in Hispanic College Freshmen

Published:February 22, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2018.12.002

      Abstract

      Background

      No studies have assessed the relationship between diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and adiposity, physical activity, and metabolic disease risk factors in a Hispanic college population.

      Objective

      To assess associations between diet quality and adiposity, metabolic health, and physical activity levels in a Hispanic college freshman population.

      Design

      This was a cross-sectional study. Measurements were obtained during a 4-hour in-person visit and included demographic information via questionnaire, height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat via BodPod, hepatic fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue via magnetic resonance imaging, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipids via blood draw from fasting subjects, physical activity (ie, step counts per day and time spent in different intensity levels) via 7-day accelerometry, and dietary intake via three to four 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary quality was calculated using the HEI-2015.

      Participants/setting

      Hispanic college freshmen (n=92), 18 to 19 years, 49% male, who were enrolled at University of Texas at Austin from 2014 to 2015.

      Main outcome measures

      Main outcome measures were diet quality and adiposity, metabolic health, and physical activity levels.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Linear regressions determined if dietary quality is related to adiposity, metabolic, and physical activity outcomes. A priori covariates included sex, body fat, and body mass index percentile (for metabolic models), and moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for adiposity and metabolic models).

      Results

      The average HEI-2015 total score was 54.9±13.4. A 1-point increase in HEI score was associated with 1.5 mL lower VAT (P=0.013); 8 minutes per day higher light activity (P=0.008), and 107 more step counts per day (P=0.002); and 0.10 μg/mL lower insulin (P=0.046) and 0.5 U lower HOMA-IR (P<0.001).

      Conclusion

      Results suggest that small improvements in diet quality may be positively associated with a reduction in metabolic disease risk, during a critical time period in a young person’s life.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      M. J. Landry is a PhD candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      S. Vandyousefi is a PhD candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      E. Khazaee is a PhD candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      R. Ghaddar is a PhD candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      F. M. Asigbee is a postdoctoral fellow, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      J. B. Boisseau is a graduate student, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      B. T. House is a functional medicine practitioner, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.

      Biography

      J. N. Davis is an associate professor, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin.