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- Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive school nutrition services.J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1738-1749
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Comprehensive nutrition programs and services in schools. 2018;118(5):920-931.
US Department of Agriculture. Child nutrition programs. http://www.fns.usda.gov/school-meals/child-nutrition-programs. Accessed June 1, 2017.
Food Research and Action Center. Effective state budget investments in nutrition programs to address hunger in 2016. http://frac.org/pdf/advocates-guide-to-state-budget-investments.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2017.
US Department of Agriculture. Child nutrition programs: Annual summary of food and nutrition service programs. https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/pd/annual.xls. Accessed June 1, 2017.
Oliveria V. Food assistance landscape: FY 2014 annual report. EIB-137. Economic Research Service website. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/1806461/eib137.pdf. Published March 2015. Accessed June 1, 2017.
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Final Rule Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs—January 2012. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/dietaryspecs.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2017.
School Nutrition Association. The School Nutrition Trends Report 2015 Summary. https://schoolnutrition.org/uploadedFiles/Resources_and_Research/Research/SNA2015TrendsSummary.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2016.
Logan CW, Connor P, Harvill EL, et al. Community eligibility provision evaluation. Food and Nutrition Service website. 2014. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/CEPEvaluation.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2017.
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) elections by state school year 2014-15. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/cn/state-cep-election-data.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2016.
- School-level practices to increase availability of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and reduce sodium in school meals—United States, 2000, 2006, 2014.MMWR. 2015; 64: 905-908
- School lunch before and after implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act.J Child Nutr Mgt. 2014; 38: 1-12
- Foods and beverages offered in US public secondary schools through the National School Lunch Program from 2011-2013: Early evidence of improved nutrition and reduced disparities.Prev Med. 2015; 78: 52-58
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. National School Lunch Program (NSLP). https://www.fns.usda.gov/nslp/national-school-lunch-program-nslp. Accessed December 15, 2017.
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Food waste reduction in school meals programs. http://healthymeals.nal.usda.gov/hsmrs/Iowa/foodwastereduction.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2017.
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Strategies for Successful Implementation of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, Implementation Research Brief: Plate Waste. https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/ops/HHFKA-PlateWaste.pdf. Published January 2016. Accessed June 1, 2017.
- Amount of time to eat lunch is associated with children’s selection and consumption of school meal entrée, fruits, vegetables, and milk.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 123-128
- Lunch, recess, and nutrition: Responding to time incentives in the cafeteria.Prev Med. 2015; 71: 27-30
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Child Nutrition Reauthorization 2010: Water availability during National School Lunch Program meal service, 2011. https://www.fns.usda.gov/water-availability-during-nslp-meal-service. Accessed February 25, 2018.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increasing access to drinking water in schools. 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/npao/pdf/water_access_in_schools_508.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2017.
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Smart Snacks in School: USDA’s All Foods in Schools Standards. https://www.fns.usda.gov/school-meals/tools-schools-focusing-smart-snacks. Accessed February 25, 2018.
- Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: A systematic review.JAMA Pediatrics. 2014; 168: 279-286
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- Impact of Connecticut legislation incentivizing elimination of unhealthy competitive foods on National School Lunch Program participation.J Public Health. 2013; 103: 59-66
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Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. The Farm to School Census. https://farmtoschoolcensus.fns.usda.gov. Accessed June 1, 2017.
- The state of America’s wasted food and opportunities to make a difference.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 1199-1207
US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. K-12 schools reducing, recovering, and recycling food waste. http://www.usda.gov/oce/foodwaste/resources/K12_schools.html. Accessed June 1, 2017.
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- School Years 2006–07 through 2013-2014. Volume 4. Bridging the Gap Program and the National Wellness Policy Study, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL2016Accessed February 28, 2018)
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- Registered dietitians in school leadership: motivational aspects of job selection and job satisfaction.J Child Nutr Mgt. 2014; 38: 1-14
School Nutrition Association. Internship program. http://schoolnutrition.org/Internships/. Accessed June 1, 2017.
This Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position was adopted by the House of Delegates Leadership Team on October 16, 1994 and reaffirmed September 12, 1999; May 9, 2007; and March 2013. The Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior Board of Directors approved the paper on November 16, 1994 and reaffirmed on May 28, 2017 and January 2, 2018. The School Nutrition Association Board of Directors approved the paper on June 10, 2010 and November 20, 2017. This position is in effect until December 31, 2025. Position papers should not be used to indicate endorsement of products or services. All requests to use portions of the position or republish in its entirety must be directed to the Academy at [email protected] .
Authors: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Dayle Hayes, MS, RD (Nutrition for the Future, Inc, Billings, MT); Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior: Isobel R. Contento, PhD (Teachers College Columbia University, New York, NY); School Nutrition Association: Carol Weekly, RD, SNS (Queen Creek Unified School District, AZ).
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST Dayle Hayes has had consultancies with the US Department of Agriculture, multiple state departments of education and agriculture, American Egg Board, California Walnuts, National Dairy Council and state/regional dairy councils, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and state beef councils, National Peanut Board, Potatoes USA, The Mushroom Council, US Highbush Blueberry Council, Clif Bar, Barilla USA, and General Mills. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the other authors.
FUNDING SUPPORT The authors received no funding for this article.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Reviewers: Feon Cheng, PhD, MPH, RDN, CHTS-CP (Academy Research, International, and Scientific Affairs, Chicago, IL); Jennifer Folliard, MPH, RDN (formerly with Academy Policy Initiatives & Advocacy, Washington DC); Joan Giampaoli, PhD, RDN (California State University, Chico, CA); Samantha Kimball, MPH, RDN (SK Nutrition Inc, Chicago, IL); Melissa Pflugh Prescott, PhD, RDN (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO); Management in Food and Nutrition Systems dietetic practice group (Barbara J. Pyper, MS, RD, SNS, FCSI, FAND, An Apple a Day, LLC, Seattle, WA); Marlene Schwartz, PhD, Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, Hartford, CT); Public Health/Community Nutrition dietetic practice group (Sally Squires, MS, Powell Tate, Washington, DC).
Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior Reviewers: Laura Bellows, PhD, MPH, RDN (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO); Meg Bruening, PhD, MPH, RD (Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ); Virginia C. Stage, PhD, RDN, LDN (East Carolina University Greenville, NC).
School Nutrition Association Reviewers: Carolyn Bednar, PhD, RDN (Texas Woman’s University Denton, TX); Maria Hall, MS, RD, LDN, SNS (Walpole Public Schools, Walpole MA); Deborah S. Taylor, RDN, LD, SNS (Oklahoma City Public Schools, Oklahoma City. OK); Sandra Voss, MS, RDN, SNS (Marquardt School District 15, Glendale Heights, IL).
Academy Positions Committee Workgroup: Penny E. McConnell, MS, RDN, SNS (retired) (chair); Valaree M. Williams, MS, RDN, CSO, (University of Colorado Health System, Aurora, CO); Mary Kay Meyer, PhD, RD, FAND (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL) (content advisor).
We thank the reviewers for their many constructive comments and suggestions. The reviewers were not asked to endorse this position or the supporting paper.