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Nutritional Status Changes and Activities of Daily Living after Hip Fracture in Convalescent Rehabilitation Units: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database

      Abstract

      Background

      Several studies have suggested that malnutrition impedes functional recovery in patients with hip fracture, but there are few reports on improvement in nutritional status and return to activities of daily living (ADL) in these patients.

      Objective

      This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in nutritional status and recovery of ADL in malnourished patients after hip fracture and to identify predictors of functional recovery among the characteristic features of undernutrition.

      Design

      This was a retrospective observational cohort study.

      Participants/setting

      Data for patients aged ≥65 years with hip fracture and malnutrition (Mini Nutritional Assessment–Short Form [MNA-SF] score ≤7) at the time of admission to convalescent rehabilitation units were obtained from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database between November 2015 and August 2017.

      Main outcome measures

      The main outcome measures were Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge and the proportion of patients discharged home.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Patients were divided into two groups based on MNA-SF scores at discharge: improvement in nutritional status (>7, IN group) and non-improvement in nutritional status (≤7, NN group). Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounders including age, sex, comorbidity, pre-fracture ADL level, and FIM score on admission.

      Results

      Of 876 patients, 110 met the eligibility criteria (mean age, 85 years; 78.2% female); 77 of the patients were assigned to the IN group and 33 to the NN group. The patients in the IN group were younger and had higher FIM and MNA-SF scores on admission than those in the NN group. At discharge, the median FIM score was significantly higher in the IN group than in the NN group (110 vs 83, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association between improvement in nutritional status and higher FIM score at discharge (B=7.377 [B=partial regression coefficient], P=0.036) but no association with discharge to home. Mobility, neuropsychological impairment, and weight loss subscores of MNA-SF were independently associated with discharge FIM score (R2=0.659).

      Conclusions

      In older patients with hip fracture and malnutrition, improvement in nutritional status was independently associated with improved performance of ADL during inpatient rehabilitation. Weight loss may be an important nutritional indicator for these patients.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      S. Nishioka is chief, Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food Service, Nagasaki Rehabilitation Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.

      Biography

      H. Wakabayashi is a lecturer, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

      Biography

      R. Momosaki is an associate professor, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa, Japan.