Main outcome measures
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
- Vitamin D deficiency.N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 266-281
- Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition.J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010; 121: 297-300
- Associations between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and breast cancer risk.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14: 2335-2339
- Role of vitamin D metabolism and activity on carcinogenesis.Oncol Res. 2014; 22: 129-137
- Vitamin D insufficiency in a multiethnic cohort of breast cancer survivors.Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 133-139
- Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among breast cancer survivors.Nutr Clin Pract. 2012; 27: 122-128
- Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality in a multiethnic cohort of breast cancer survivors.Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24: 759-767
- The vitamin D status of the US population from 1988 to 2010 using standardized serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D shows recent modest increases.Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 104: 454-461
- Vitamin D in the skin physiology and pathology.Acta Biochim Pol. 2016; 63: 89-95
- Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity.Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 690-693
- Vitamin D and its relationship with obesity and muscle.Int J Endocrinol. 2014; 2014: 841248
- Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Int J Obes (Lond). 2010; 34: 791-799
- Study design and protocol for moving forward: A weight loss intervention trial for African-American breast cancer survivors.BMC Cancer. 2015; 15: 1018
- Blood biomarkers of vitamin D status.Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 1087S-1091S
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Classifications of Obesity, Overweight and Underweight Adults. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/growthcharts/training/bmiage/page4.html. Accessed July 20, 2017.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health and Nutriton Examination Survey. Anthropometry Procedures Manual. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_an.pdf. Accessed April 6, 2017.
- Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for quantification of visceral fat.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012; 20: 1313-1318
- A diet history questionnaire ranks nutrient intakes in middle-aged and older men and women similarly to multiple food records.J Nutr. 1993; 123: 489-501
- Measures of sun exposure and sun protection practices for behavioral and epidemiologic research.Arch Dermatol. 2008; 144: 217-222
- Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 1911-1930
- Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.National Academies Press, Washington, DC2010
SAS [computer program]. Version 9.4. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc; 2002-2012.
- Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults.Nutr Res. 2011; 31: 48-54
- Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012; 21: 456-462
- Vitamin D and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers: A review of the epidemiological evidence.J Cancer. 2016; 7: 232-240
- Prognostic effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early breast cancer.J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 3757-3763
- Blood levels of vitamin D and early stage breast cancer prognosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 141: 331-339
- Associations between vitamin D deficiency and risk of aggressive breast cancer in African-American women.J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013; 136: 337-341
- Determinants of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in a nationwide cohort of blacks and non-Hispanic whites.Cancer Causes Control. 2010; 21: 501-511
- Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 172: 21-35
- Correlates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer stage in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study.Nutr Cancer. 2013; 65: 188-194
- The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season.Anticancer Res. 2009; 29: 3713-3720
- Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index in cancer.Nutr J. 2011; 10: 51
- Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: A study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH.BMC Womens Health. 2013; 13: 33
- Lean tissue imaging: A new era for nutritional assessment and intervention.JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2014; 38: 940-953
- Advances in the science and application of body composition measurement.JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012; 36: 96-107
- Human body composition: Advances in models and methods.Annu Rev Nutr. 1997; 17: 527-558
- Dual-energy x-ray performs as well as clinical computed tomography for the measurement of visceral fat.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012; 20: 1109-1114
- Body fat and vitamin D status in black versus white women.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 635-640
- Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white women of reproductive age: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76: 187-192
- The effect of body mass index on adequacy of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2006.Ann Epidemiol. 2014; 24: 781-784
- Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: Impact of race/ethnicity.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008; 16: 600-607
- Clinical utility of visceral adipose tissue for the identification of cardiometabolic risk in white and African American adults.Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 480-486
- Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women.Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 61: 765-771
- Racial differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in postmenopausal black and white women.Metabolism. 2003; 52: 186-191
- DXA-measured visceral adipose tissue predicts impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome in obese Caucasian and African-American women.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015; 69: 329-336
- Abdominal superficial subcutaneous fat: A putative distinct protective fat subdepot in type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2012; 35: 640-647
- Vitamin D assays: Past and present debates, difficulties, and developments.Calcif Tissue Int. 2013; 92: 118-127
- Comparison of four current 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays.Clin Biochem. 2012; 45: 326-330
- State-of-the-art vitamin D assays: A comparison of automated immunoassays with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods.Clin Chem. 2012; 58: 531-542
- Measurement of 25-OH-vitamin D in human serum using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry with comparison to radioimmunoassay and automated immunoassay.J Chromatogr B, Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010; 878: 1163-1168
- Variability in vitamin D assays impairs clinical assessment of vitamin D status.Intern Med J. 2012; 42: 43-50
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D testing: Challenging the performance of current automated immunoassays.Clin Chem Lab Med. 2012; 50: 1953-1963
- Clinical controversies in vitamin D: 25(OH)D measurement, target concentration, and supplementation.J Clin Densitom. 2013; 16: 402-408
- Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014.JAMA. 2016; 315: 2284-2291
American Council on Exercise. https://www.acefitness.org/education-and-resources/lifestyle/tools-calculators/percent-body-fat-calculator. Accessed November 17, 2017.
- Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and prevalence estimates of hypovitaminosis D in the U.S. population based on assay-adjusted data.J Nutr. 2012; 142: 498-507
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
FUNDING/SUPPORT National Institute on Aging, Midwest Roybal Center for Health Promotion and Translation (P30AG022849); National Cancer Institute, Moving Forward (R01CA154406); National Cancer Institute, Cancer Education and Career Development Program (R25CA057699). These funding sources were not involved in the design, data collection, analysis, interpretation, or written dissemination of this work.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS P. Sheean and M. Stolley contributed to the design, funding acquisition, data collection, statistical analyses, and original drafting of the manuscript. C. Arroyo contributed to the ethical approval, recruitment, data collection, and data management. L. Schiffer and J. Woo contributed to the data management, analyses, and manuscript revisions.