Orthorexia Nervosa and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Registered Dietitian Nutritionists in the United States

      Abstract

      Background

      Registered dietitian nutritionists are trained to identify optimal food choices for clients based on medical state and lifestyle. Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a proposed disorder related to obsessions about eating healthfully. Eating disorders (EDs) are serious mental illnesses with symptoms related to eating, body image, and self-esteem. Both ON and EDs are more common among RDNs than the general population.

      Objective

      This study examined the prevalence of ON and EDs in RDNs in the United States and, among this sample, assessed whether the presence of ON symptoms related to symptoms of EDs, including weight, shape, eating, and restraint.

      Design

      A cross-sectional design compared responses for participants after dividing into three groups: those scoring at-risk for ON, those with a current or past ED, and a comparison group.

      Participants

      A sample of 2,500 RDNs were invited to complete surveys electronically; 636 responses were received.

      Main outcome measures

      Scores on the Orthorexia Nervosa Questionnaire (ORTO-15) and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) determined prevalence of ON and EDs. Differences in these measures, and body mass index were compared among the three groups.

      Statistical analyses

      Analysis of variance and χ2 analyses were used to compare the groups.

      Results

      For the entire sample, scores on the ORTO-15 suggested 49.5% were at risk for ON, and scores on the EDE-Q suggested 12.9% were at risk for an ED, with 8.2% of RDNs self-disclosing treatment for an ED. Both the group disclosing ED treatment and the group at risk for ON had a lower mean body mass index, lower scores on the ORTO-15, and higher scores on the EDE-Q and all its subscales than the comparison group.

      Conclusions

      Clarifying the relationship between ON and EDs is warranted because ON symptoms appear to be associated not only with disturbances in eating, but also with elevated shape and weight concerns.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      K. Tremelling is a graduate of the Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Health Professions, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

      Biography

      L. Sandon is program director and assistant professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Health Professions, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

      Biography

      G. L. Vega is a distinguished professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Health Professions, and a distinguished professor, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Southwestern Texas Medical Center, Dallas.

      Biography

      C. J. McAdams is an assistant professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, and a psychiatrist, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas.