2015 Evidence Analysis Library Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline for the Management of Hypertension in Adults

      Abstract

      Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure (BP) is among the most prevalent forms of cardiovascular disease and occurs in approximately one of every three adults in the United States. The purpose of this Evidence Analysis Library (EAL) guideline is to provide an evidence-based summary of nutrition therapy for the management of HTN in adults aged 18 years or older. Implementation of this guideline aims to promote evidence-based practice decisions by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs), and other collaborating health professionals to decrease or manage HTN in adults while enhancing patient quality of life and taking into account individual preferences. The systematic review and guideline development methodology of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics were applied. A total of 70 research studies were included, analyzed, and rated for quality by trained evidence analysts (literature review dates ranged between 2004 and 2015). Evaluation and synthesis of related evidence resulted in the development of nine recommendations. To reduce BP in adults with HTN, there is strong evidence to recommend provision of medical nutrition therapy by an RDN, adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern, calcium supplementation, physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, reduction in dietary sodium intake, and reduction of alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers. Increased intake of dietary potassium and calcium as well as supplementation with potassium and magnesium for lowering BP are also recommended (fair evidence). Finally, recommendations related to lowering BP were formulated on vitamin D, magnesium, and the putative role of alcohol consumption in moderate drinkers (weak evidence). In conclusion, the present evidence-based nutrition practice guideline describes the most current recommendations on the dietary management of HTN in adults intended to support the practice of RDNs and other health professionals.
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      Biography

      S. L. Lennon is a workgroup member of the 2015 Hypertension EAL project, and an associate professor, Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark.

      Biography

      D. M. DellaValle is chair of the 2015 Hypertension EAL project Workgroup, and associate professor and research dietitian, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Marywood University, Scranton, PA.

      Biography

      S. G. Rodder is a workgroup member of the 2015 Hypertension EAL project, an assistant professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, and a medical nutrition therapy provider, Program in Preventive Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

      Biography

      M. Prest is a workgroup member of the 2015 Hypertension EAL project, and lead dietitian, Lakeview Dialysis, Fresenius Kidney Care, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      R. C. Sinley is an assistant professor, Nutrition Department, College of Professional Studies, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO; at the time of the study, she was a nutrition researcher, level I, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL.

      Biography

      M. K. Hoy is lead analyst of the 2015 Hypertension EAL project Workgroup, and a nutritionist, Food Surveys Research Group, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      C. Papoutsakis is director, Nutrition Care Process, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL; at the time of the study, she was a nutrition researcher, level II, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL.