Advertisement

Associations between Both Lignan and Yogurt Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters in an Elderly Population: Observations from a Cross-Sectional Approach in the PREDIMED Study

Published:December 29, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2016.11.003

      Abstract

      Background

      The study of dietary patterns is gaining interest. Although the health benefits of yogurt and lignans have been investigated separately, to our knowledge there are no studies on their associative effects.

      Objective

      The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between yogurt and lignans using biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in an elderly population.

      Design

      We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association between baseline dietary information and cardiovascular risk parameters using food frequency questionnaires.

      Participants

      We enrolled 7,169 Spanish participants of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (elderly men and women at high cardiovascular risk) from June 2003 to June 2009.

      Main outcome measures

      Cardiovascular risk parameters, including cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, body mass index, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured.

      Statistical analysis

      General linear models were used to assess the relationship between categorical variables (yogurt, total dairy intake, lignans, and yogurt plus lignans) and cardiovascular risk parameters.

      Results

      The consumption of either yogurt or lignans seems to have beneficial effects on human health, but the consumption of both showed greater improvement in some cardiovascular health parameters. Indeed, participants with a higher consumption of both yogurt and lignans showed lower total cholesterol (estimated β-coefficients=−6.18; P=0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (β=−4.92; P=0.005). In contrast, participants with lower yogurt and lignan consumption had a higher body mass index (β=0.28; P=0.007) and weight (β=1.20; P=0.008).

      Conclusions

      High lignan and yogurt consumption is associated with a better cardiovascular risk parameters profile in an elderly Mediterranean population. Further research is warranted to determine the mechanisms and consequences of this potential effect.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Manach C.
        • Scalbert A.
        • Morand C.
        • Remesy C.
        • Jimenez L.
        Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 727-747
        • Boto-Ordóñez M.
        • Urpi-Sarda M.
        • Queipo-Ortuño M.I.
        • Tulipani S.
        • Tinahones F.J.
        • Andres-Lacueva C.
        High levels of Bifidobacteria are associated with increased levels of anthocyanin microbial metabolites: A randomized clinical trial.
        Food Funct. 2014; 5: 1932-1938
        • Adlercreutz H.
        Lignans and human health.
        Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2007; 44 (Review): 483-525
        • Landete J.M.
        Plant and mammalian lignans: A review of source, intake, metabolism, intestinal bacteria and health.
        Food Res Int. 2012; 46: 410-424
      1. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Working Group on Drafting Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. Ontario, Canada: April 30-May 1, 2002.

        • Guarner F.
        • Perdigon G.
        • Corthier G.
        • Salminen S.
        • Koletzko B.
        • Morelli L.
        Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?.
        Br J Nutr. 2005; 93: 783
        • Kechagia M.
        • Basoulis D.
        • Konstantopoulou S.
        • et al.
        Health benefits of probiotics: A review.
        ISRN Nutr. 2013; 2013: 481651
        • Fung T.T.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Spiegelman D.
        • et al.
        Association between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 73: 61-67
        • Jacobs D.R.J.
        • Steffen L.M.
        Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: A framework for food synergy.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 508S-513S
        • Babio N.
        • Becerra-Tomás N.
        • Martínez-González M.Á.
        • et al.
        Consumption of yogurt, low-fat milk, and other low-fat dairy products is associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome incidence in an elderly Mediterranean population.
        J Nutr. 2015; 145: 2308-2316
        • Díaz-López A.
        • Bulló M.
        • Martínez-González M.A.
        • et al.
        Dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.
        Eur J Nutr. 2015; 55: 349-360
        • Martínez-González M.Á.
        • Corella D.
        • Salas-Salvadó J.
        • et al.
        Cohort profile: Design and methods of the PREDIMED study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2012; 41: 377-385
      2. Predimed (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea). www.predimed.es. Published 2003. Accessed February 8, 2016.

        • Estruch R.
        • Ros E.
        • Salas-Salvadó J.
        • et al.
        Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet.
        N Engl J Med. 2013; 368: 1279-1290
        • Fernández-Ballart J.D.
        • Piñol J.L.
        • Zazpe I.
        • et al.
        Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain.
        Br J Nutr. 2010; 103: 1808-1816
        • Martínez-González M.A.
        • Fernández-Jarne E.
        • Serrano-Martínez M.
        • Wright M.
        • Gomez-Gracia E.
        Development of a short dietary intake questionnaire for the quantitative estimation of adherence to a cardioprotective Mediterranean diet.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58: 1550-1552
        • Elosua R.
        • Garcia M.
        • Aguilar A.
        • Molina L.
        • Covas M.I.
        • Marrugat J.
        Validation of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire In Spanish Women. Investigators of the MARATDON Group.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32: 1431-1437
        • O’Brien E.
        • Waeber B.
        • Parati G.
        • Staessen J.
        • Myers M.G.
        Blood pressure measuring devices: Recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension.
        BMJ. 2001; 322: 531-536
        • Warnick G.R.
        • Knopp R.H.
        • Fitzpatrick V.
        • Branson L.
        Estimating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by the Friedewald equation is adequate for classifying patients on the basis of nationally recommended cutpoints.
        Clin Chem. 1990; 36: 15-19
        • Mataix J.
        Tablas de Composición de Alimentos [Food Composition Tables].
        4th ed. Universidad de Granada, Granada2003
      3. Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. Phenol-Explorer: An online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/bap024.

      4. SAS [computer program]. Version 9.3. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 2011.

        • Scalbert A.
        • Morand C.
        • Manach C.
        • Rémésy C.
        Absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in the gut and impact on health.
        Biomed Pharmacother. 2002; 56: 276-282
        • de Pascual-Teresa S.
        • Moreno D.A.
        • García-Viguera C.
        Flavanols and anthocyanins in cardiovascular health: A review of current evidence.
        Int J Mol Sci. 2010; 11: 1679-1703
        • Zhang W.
        • Wang X.
        • Liu Y.
        • et al.
        Dietary flaxseed lignan extract lowers plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.
        Br J Nutr. 2008; 99: 1301-1309
        • Adolphe J.L.
        • Whiting S.J.
        • Juurlink B.H.J.
        • Thorpe L.U.
        • Alcorn J.
        Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.
        Br J Nutr. 2010; 103: 929-938
        • During A.
        • Debouche C.
        • Raas T.
        • Larondelle Y.
        Among plant lignans, pinoresinol has the strongest antiinflammatory properties in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.
        J Nutr. 2012; 142: 1798-1805
        • Pellegrini N.
        • Valtueña S.
        • Ardigò D.
        • et al.
        Intake of the plant lignans matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and lariciresinol in relation to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in middle age-elderly men and post-menopausal women living in Northern Italy.
        Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010; 20: 64-71
        • Milder I.E.
        • Feskens E.J.
        • Arts I.C.
        • Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.
        • Hollman P.C.
        • Kromhout D.
        Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 400-405
        • Scott K.P.
        • Gratz S.W.
        • Sheridan P.O.
        • Flint H.J.
        • Duncan S.H.
        The influence of diet on the gut microbiota.
        Pharmacol Res. 2013; 69: 52-60
        • Lee H.C.
        • Jenner A.M.
        • Low C.S.
        • Lee Y.K.
        Effect of tea phenolics and their aromatic fecal bacterial metabolites on intestinal microbiota.
        Res Microbiol. 2006; 157: 876-884
        • Rastmanesh R.
        High polyphenol, low probiotic diet for weight loss because of intestinal microbiota interaction.
        Chem Biol Interact. 2011; 189: 1-8
        • Parkar S.G.
        • Trower T.M.
        • Stevenson D.E.
        Fecal microbial metabolism of polyphenols and its effects on human gut microbiota.
        Anaerobe. 2013; 23: 12-19
        • Kemperman R.A.
        • Bolca S.
        • Roger L.C.
        • Vaughan E.E.
        Novel approaches for analysing gut microbes and dietary polyphenols: Challenges and opportunities.
        Microbiology. 2010; 156: 3224-3231
        • Etxeberria U.
        • Fernández-Quintela A.
        • Milagro F.I.
        • Aguirre L.
        • Martínez J.A.
        • Portillo M.P.
        Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition.
        J Agric Food Chem. 2013; 61: 9517-9533
        • Brigidi P.
        • Swennen E.
        • Vitali B.
        • Rossi M.
        • Matteuzzi D.
        PCR detection of Bifidobacterium strains and Streptococcus thermophilus in feces of human subjects after oral bacteriotherapy and yogurt consumption.
        Int J Food Microbiol. 2003; 81: 203-209
        • Mater D.D.G.
        • Bretigny L.
        • Firmesse O.
        • et al.
        Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus survive gastrointestinal transit of healthy volunteers consuming yogurt.
        FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005; 250: 185-187
        • Elli M.
        • Callegari M.L.
        • Ferrari S.
        • et al.
        Survival of yogurt bacteria in the human gut.
        Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006; 72: 5113-5117
      5. Pei R, Martin DA, DiMarco DM, Bolling BW. Evidence for the effects of yogurt on gut health and obesity [published online ahead of print April 15, 2015]. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2014.883356.

        • Glanville J.M.
        • Brown S.
        • Shamir R.
        • Szajewska H.
        • Eales J.F.
        The scale of the evidence base on the health effects of conventional yogurt consumption: Findings of a scoping review.
        Front Pharmacol. 2015; 6: 1-12
        • Cormier H.
        • Thifault É.
        • Garneau V.
        • et al.
        Association between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
        Eur J Nutr. 2016; 55: 577-587
        • Jacques P.F.
        • Wang H.
        Yogurt and weight management.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 99: 1229S-1234S
        • Rhee S.H.
        • Pothoulakis C.
        • Mayer E.A.
        Principles and clinical implications of the brain–gut–enteric microbiota axis.
        Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009; 6: 306-314
        • Alcock J.
        • Maley C.C.
        • Aktipis C.A.
        Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms.
        Bioessays. 2014; 36: 940-949
        • Zapata H.J.
        • Quagliarello V.J.
        The microbiota and microbiome in aging: Potential implications in health and age-related diseases.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015; 63: 776-781
        • Steinert R.E.
        • Sadabad M.S.
        • Harmsen H.J.M.
        • Weber P.
        The prebiotic concept and human health: A changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016; : 1-6
        • Jacques P.F.
        • Tucker K.L.
        Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 73: 1-2
        • Jacobs D.R.
        What comes first: The food or the nutrient? Executive summary of a symposium.
        J Nutr. 2014; 144: 543S-546S
        • Jacobs D.R.
        • Tapsell L.C.
        • Temple N.J.
        Food synergy: The key to balancing the nutrition research effort.
        Public Health Rev. 2012; 33: 507-529
        • Vallverdú-Queralt A.
        • Arranz S.
        • Medina-Remón A.
        • Casals-Ribes I.
        • Lamuela-Raventós R.M.
        Changes in phenolic content of tomato products during storage.
        J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59: 9358-9365

      Biography

      A. Creus-Cuadros is a doctoral student of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy Department, XaRTA, INSA, Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

      Biography

      A. Tresserra-Rimbau is a postdoctoral researcher, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy Department, XaRTA, INSA, Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; and a member of Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      P. Quifer-Rada is a doctoral student of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy Department, XaRTA, INSA, Pharmacy School, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      M. A. Martínez-González is a professor, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Navarra, Spain; and a member of Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Government of Spain.

      Biography

      D. Corella is a professor, Department of Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      J. Salas-Salvadó is a professor of nutrition and food science, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; a member of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Food Safety and Nutrition Agency, an organization that depends on the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality; chairman of the Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Diet and Dietetic Societies; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      M. Fitó is a postdoctoral researcher, Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      R. Estruch is a medical doctor and postdoctoral researcher, Cardiology, Internal Medicine (General Medicine), Nutrition and Dietetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínic, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      E. Gómez-Gracia is an associate professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      J. Lapetra is an associate professor, Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Sevilla, San Pablo Health Center, Sevilla, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      F. Arós is a medical doctor and postdoctoral researcher, Department of Cardiology, Hospital Txagorritxu, Vitoria, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      M. Fiol is a postdoctoral researcher, Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      E. Ros is a medical doctor and postdoctoral researcher, Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      L. Serra-Majem is a medical doctor and postdoctoral researcher, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      X. Pintó is a medical doctor and postdoctoral researcher, Lipid Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, FIPEC, Barcelona, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      J. J. Moreno is a professor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, INSA, University of Barcelona, Spain.

      Biography

      M. Ruiz-Canela is an assistant professor, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      J. V. Sorli is a postdoctoral researcher, Department of Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; and a member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      J. Basora is a postdoctoral researcher, Human Nutrition Unit, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere i Virgili, University Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain; and member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      H. Schröder is a postdoctoral researcher, Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; and member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

      Biography

      R. M. Lamuela-Raventós is an associate professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Science School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Spain; and member of CIBERObn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.