Advertisement

NOTICE: We are experiencing technical issues with Academy members trying to log into the JAND site using Academy member login credentials. We are working to resolve the issue as soon as possible. Alternatively, if you are an Academy member, you can access the JAND site by registering for an Elsevier account and claiming access using the links at the top of the JAND site. Email us at [email protected] for assistance. Thanks for your patience!

Are Mushrooms a Significant Source of Vitamin D?

Published:August 24, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2016.07.001
      Vitamin D (also known as calciferol) exists in several forms, most notably D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol). Both forms are yielded following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation; D2 appears in some fungi, molds, and yeasts, and D3 in animals, including humans.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • Koszewski N.J.
      • Simon R.R.
      Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      Another form of vitamin D (D4) has also been detected in some varieties of mushrooms, following their exposure to UV light.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • Koszewski N.J.
      • Simon R.R.
      Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      There are few naturally occurring sources of vitamin D,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      especially ones suitable for vegetarians
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      and vegans.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      Mushrooms cultivated in the wild have historically contained higher amounts of vitamin D in comparison to those grown commercially.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      Exposing mushrooms to UV light after harvesting has increased the amount of vitamin D in some types,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • Koszewski N.J.
      • Simon R.R.
      Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      and its retention following cold storage, heating,
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      and drying has been measurable.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      However, discrepancies in the amount of vitamin D detected within the same species and among different species of mushrooms has been reported,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • Koszewski N.J.
      • Simon R.R.
      Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
      as well as the potential for loss following common cooking procedures.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      An analysis
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      in conjunction with the release of the 22nd US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference revealed that 10 varieties of mushrooms sampled from US retailers varied considerably in their amounts of vitamin D2,
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • Koszewski N.J.
      • Simon R.R.
      Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
      and the mushrooms frequently consumed by Americans (ie, white button, cremini, and portabella) contained insignificant amounts (less than 1% of the recommended dietary allowance [RDA]). In comparison, varieties such as shiitake and morels were estimated to contribute 1% to 12% of the RDA, and UV-treated portabellas contained approximately 52% of the RDA per 1-cup serving.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      One explanation for these variations is disparities in natural light exposure during or following harvesting
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      ; the type of mushroom, its moisture content and position,
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      the light’s wavelength and intensity, and duration of exposure could also all result in different detected amounts of vitamin D following UV exposure.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      The bioavailability of vitamin D from both wild mushrooms
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      and those treated with UV light has been well demonstrated,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Ruggio D.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • et al.
      Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
      • Phillips K.M.
      • Horst R.L.
      • Koszewski N.J.
      • Simon R.R.
      Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      yet its effectiveness in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels remains elusive. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed that the number of randomly controlled trials have been few in number and produced inconsistent findings.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      Two studies that evaluated UV-treated mushrooms, one in the form of powder,
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      and the other as a cooked serving of vegetables,
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      determined that although vitamin D2 levels increased accordingly,
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      there was a resulting decrease in vitamin D3 levels and, therefore, no change overall in total serum 25(OH)D.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      A separate preceding study,
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      using a substantially higher weekly dose of vitamin D2–enhanced pureéd mushroom soup, resulted in significantly higher 25(OH)D levels,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      as did a trial
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      using a dried mushroom extract.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      Yet another study involving adults with prediabetes and vitamin D2–enriched cooked mushrooms
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      achieved higher vitamin D2 levels, but only in the high-dose group, and vitamin D3 and serum 25(OH)D remained unaffected.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      • Mehrotra A.
      • Calvo M.S.
      • Beelman R.B.
      • et al.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
      Although serum 25(OH)D levels are used to assess vitamin D status overall,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      this measure takes into account both dietary sources and supplements, as well as the amount of vitamin D obtained through sunlight. Other considerations include the dose and frequency of vitamin D administered,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      latitude,
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      and the participant’s baseline serum levels of 25(OH)D.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      Several trials referenced white or brown button mushrooms.
      • Keegan R.J.
      • Lu Z.
      • Boqusz J.M.
      • Williams J.E.
      • Holick M.F.
      Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Urbain P.
      • Singler F.
      • Ihorst G.
      • Biesalski H.-K.
      • Bertz H.
      Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      However, the amount of vitamin D obtained through UV exposure varied, as did the preparation of mushroom used by the participants,
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      the duration of the trials,
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      the seasonality,
      • Stephensen C.B.
      • Zerofsky M.
      • Burnett D.J.
      • et al.
      Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      and the method used to measure serum levels.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • Stepien M.
      • Gibney M.J.
      • Nugent A.P.
      • Brennan L.
      The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
      • Cashman K.D.
      • Kiely M.
      • Seamans K.M.
      • Urbain P.
      Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
      While it is evident that some varieties of mushrooms could be regarded as good sources of vitamin D, not all types will meet these criteria. Fortunately, mushrooms provide other valuable nutrients, like some of the B-vitamins and trace minerals, and mushrooms are naturally low in calories.
      • Stepien M.
      • O’Mahony L.
      • O’Sullivan A.
      • et al.
      Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
      They’re extremely versatile in the kitchen and can be used to complement other good sources of vitamin D in helping people meet the recommended intake.

      References

        • O’Mahony L.
        • Stepien M.
        • Gibney M.J.
        • Nugent A.P.
        • Brennan L.
        The potential role of vitamin D enhanced foods in improving vitamin D status.
        Nutrients. 2011; 3: 1023-1041
        • Phillips K.M.
        • Ruggio D.M.
        • Horst R.L.
        • et al.
        Vitamin D and sterol composition of 10 types of mushrooms from retail suppliers in the United States.
        J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59: 7841-7853
        • Phillips K.M.
        • Horst R.L.
        • Koszewski N.J.
        • Simon R.R.
        Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.
        PLoSONE. 2012; 7 ([published online August 3, 2012]): e40702https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040702
        • Keegan R.J.
        • Lu Z.
        • Boqusz J.M.
        • Williams J.E.
        • Holick M.F.
        Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.
        Dermatoendocrinol. 2013; 5: 165-176
        • Stephensen C.B.
        • Zerofsky M.
        • Burnett D.J.
        • et al.
        Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
        J Nutr. 2012; 142: 1246-1252
        • Urbain P.
        • Singler F.
        • Ihorst G.
        • Biesalski H.-K.
        • Bertz H.
        Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011; 65: 965-971
        • Stepien M.
        • O’Mahony L.
        • O’Sullivan A.
        • et al.
        Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.
        J Nutr Sci. 2013;Aug 29; 2: 1-9https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2013.22
        • Cashman K.D.
        • Kiely M.
        • Seamans K.M.
        • Urbain P.
        Effect of ultraviolet light-exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis.
        J Nutr. 2016; 146: 565-575
        • Mehrotra A.
        • Calvo M.S.
        • Beelman R.B.
        • et al.
        Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: A randomized controlled trial.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68: 1154-1160