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Oncology Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline for Adults

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      Editor’s note: Figure 4 and Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 that accompany this article are available online at is a term used to describe a group of more than 100 multifactorial diseases in which abnormal cells reproduce in an uncontrolled manner and are able to spread to other parts of the body and invade healthy tissues.

      National Cancer Institute. What is cancer? Updated February 9, 2015. Accessed February 15, 2016.

      Numbers of cancer-related deaths have fallen steadily since the 1990s, and the number of cancer survivors has increased.

      National Cancer Institute. Cancer statistics. Updated March 14, 2016. Accessed June 13, 2016.

      The National Cancer Institute has estimated that 1,685,210 new cases will be diagnosed and 595,690 deaths will occur in 2016.

      National Cancer Institute. Cancer statistics. Updated March 14, 2016. Accessed June 13, 2016.

      Cancers develop from complex interactions between genes and the environment.

      American Cancer Society. Genes in cancer. Reviewed June 25, 2014. Accessed February 15, 2016.

      Although many of the specific pathways by which nutritional status can impact cancer remain poorly understood,

      National Cancer Institute. Nutrition in cancer care-health professional version (PDQ): Overview. Updated January 8, 2016. Accessed February 15, 2016.

      it is well recognized that nutrition plays important roles in cancer prevention and treatment.

      National Cancer Institute. Nutrition in cancer care-health professional version (PDQ): Overview. Updated January 8, 2016. Accessed February 15, 2016.

      • Reeves G.K.
      • Pirie K.
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      • Bull D.
      Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: Cohort study.
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      Global nutrition research: Nutrition and breast cancer prevention as a model.
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      The effect of diet on risk of cancer.
      • Key T.
      Cancer prevention and treatment.
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      3. American Cancer Society. Genes in cancer. Reviewed June 25, 2014. Accessed February 15, 2016.

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      K. L. Thompson is a senior lecturer in nutrition and director, Dietetic Internship Program, Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management, Beaver College of Health Sciences, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC.


      L. Elliott is a clinical dietitian, Mary Greeley Medical Center, Ames, IA.


      V. Fuchs-Tarlovsky is a licensed nutritionist and head of Clinical Nutrition Department and Research in Oncology Nutrition, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico.


      R. M. Levin is a clinical integration program lead (nutrition), Dell Children’s Blood and Cancer Center, Austin, TX.


      A. C. Voss is in private practice, Palm Bay, FL.


      T. Piemonte is a project manager/independent consultant, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, St Petersburg, FL.