The use of dietary supplements (DS) is common in South Korea and other countries. However, few studies have been conducted in South Korea on their use, especially in early childhood.
The objective of this study was to compare total nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy among DS users and nonusers in Korean children.
Data of participants aged 1 to 8 from the 4th (2007-2009) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The participants were divided into two groups based on use of dietary supplements (DS users, n=766; nonusers, n=1,648).
Main outcome measures
Dietary intake measured by 24-hour recall and DS information from questionnaires was collected with the assistance of a caregiver. Nutrient intake was adjusted within and between person variations, using C-SIDE (Software for Intake Distribution Estimation, version 1.02, 1996; available from the Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology, Iowa State University) software to estimate usual intake. Total nutrient intake was calculated as the sum of nutrient intake from food and DS.
Statistical analyses performed
Nutrient intake between groups was compared by using a multivariate regression model adjusted for demographic characteristics. Adequacy of nutrient intake between the two groups was compared with Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans by using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, controlling for demographic characteristics.
No significant differences were observed in dietary macronutrients and micronutrients between DS users and nonusers, except for calcium. Total intake (food+DS) of vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, and iron were higher in DS users compared with nonusers. A lower percentage of DS users had total micronutrient intakes below the estimated average requirement compared with nonusers. DS use was associated with intakes of vitamin A and C that were higher than the tolerable upper intake levels.
DS use in children contributes to adequate micronutrient intake. However, concerns exist about excessive intakes of specific nutrients, especially among children who consume more than the suggested dosage.
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M. Kang, is a researcher, Research Institute of Human Ecology, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
H. J Jung is a researcher, Research Institute of Human Ecology, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
D. W. Kim is a professor, Department of Home Economics, Korea National Open University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
J. E. Shim is a professor, Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
Y. Song is a professor, Major of Food and Nutrition, School of Human Ecology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon-si, Republic of Korea.
K. Kim is a researcher, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
H.-Y. Paik is a professor, Research Institute of Human Ecology, College of Human Ecology, and a professor, Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Published online: April 12, 2016
Accepted: February 18, 2016
Received: June 5, 2015
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
FUNDING/SUPPORT This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (grant no. 2013R1A1A2057600).
© 2016 by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.