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- Potential benefits of calorie labeling in restaurants.JAMA. 2014; 312: 887-888
- Menu labeling as a potential strategy for combating the obesity epidemic: A health impact assessment.Am J Public Health. 2009; 99: 1680-1686
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Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, Pub L No. 101-535, 104 Stat 2353 (1990).
Center for Science in the Public Interest. State and local menu labeling policies. http://www.cspinet.org/new/pdf/ml_map.pdf. Published April 2011. Accessed December 7, 2015.
National Conference of State Legislatures. Trans fat and menu labeling legislation. www.ncsl.org/research/health/trans-fat-and-menu-labeling-legislation.aspx. Published January 2013. Accessed December 8, 2015.
- Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments.Fed Reg. 2011; 76: 19191-19236
- Food labeling; Nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments; extension of compliance date.Fed Reg. 2015; 80 (July 10, 2015) (21 CFR pts. 11 and 101) (Accessed October 15, 2015): 39675
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- Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches.Annu Rev Public Health. 2008; 29: 253-272
- Menu-labeling usage and its association with diet and exercise: 2011 BRFSS Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu Labeling Module.Prev Chronic Dis. 2014; 11: 130231
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- Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US Adults, 2009.J Public Health. 2014; 36: 490-496
- Restaurant menu labeling use among adults—17 states, 2012.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014; 63: 581-584
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Weighting BRFSS Data−BRFSS 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/annual_data/2013/pdf/Weighting_Data.pdf. Accessed October 28, 2015.
- Tracking chronic disease and risk behavior prevalence as survey participation declines: Statistics from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and other national surveys.Prev Chronic Dis. 2008; 5 (Accessed December 7, 2015): A80
- A systematic review of publications assessing reliability and validity of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2004−2011.BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014; 13: 49
US Department of Health and Human Services. Protection of human subjects. 45 CFR §46. http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.html. Published January 2009. Revised January 15, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2015.
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. NIH Publication. 1998; No. 98-4083. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/ob_gdlns.pdf. Accessed November 10, 2015.
Multinomial Logistic Regression. UCLA: Statistical Consulting Group. http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/dae/mlogit.htm. Accessed December 8, 2015.
- Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: Cross sectional customer surveys.BMJ. 2011; 343: d4464
- Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food restaurant menus?.Appetite. 2014; 81: 30-36
- Sociodemographic disparities among fast-food restaurant customers who notice and use calorie menu labels.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015; 115: 1093-1101
- The publics’ understanding of daily caloric recommendations and their perceptions of calorie posting in chain restaurants.BMC Public Health. 2010; 10: 121
- Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial.Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008; 5: 63
- Fast food consumption of US adults: Impact on energy and nutrient intakes and overweight status.J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23: 163-168
- Fast-food consumption among US adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile.J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 1332-1338
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- Barriers and facilitators of consumer use of nutrition labels at sit-down restaurant chains.Public Health Nutr. 2013; 16: 2138-2145
US Food and Drug Administration. How many calories? Look at the menu! http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm423082.htm. Published November 2014. Accessed December 8, 2015.
- Evaluating the impact of menu labeling on food choices and intake.Am J Public Health. 2010; 100: 312-318
- The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: A systematic review and meta-analysis.J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 1375-1388
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
FUNDING/SUPPORT There is no funding to disclose.