Skin Carotenoid Response to a High-Carotenoid Juice in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Published:August 05, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.06.011

      Abstract

      Background

      Previous studies have shown an increase in serum carotenoid status among children when fed carotenoids. This study looked at the effect and dose–response of a known amount of carotenoid consumption on change in skin carotenoid status among children.

      Methods

      Participants were children aged 5 to 17 years from Cache County, UT (n=58). Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: high (n=18) or low (n=18) dose of a carotenoid-rich juice (2.75 mg carotenoids/30 mL juice), or placebo juice (n=22). Children were asked to drink an assigned dose of the juice (30 to 120 mL/day) based on the weight of the child and group assignment, every day for 8 weeks. Skin carotenoids were measured every 2 weeks by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Participants were asked to maintain their usual diet throughout the study. Usual diet was assessed using three averaged 24-hour recalls; diet constancy was measured using food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline, Week 4, and Week 8. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess the group differences in skin carotenoid status over time.

      Results

      The high-dose and low-dose groups had mean±standard deviation increases in skin carotenoid status of 11,515±1,134 and 10,009±1,439 Raman intensity counts, respectively (both P values <0.001, for change in means compared with baseline) at Week 8, although they showed significant change from baseline by Week 2. The placebo group’s change of 985 Raman intensity counts was not statistically significant. The difference in change between the 2 experimental groups was not significant at Week 2, 4, 6, or 8.

      Conclusions

      Consumption of 30 to 120 mL (2.75 to 11 mg carotenoids) of a carotenoid-rich juice significantly increased skin carotenoid status over an 8-week period among children aged 5 to 17 years. The amount of carotenoids found in this amount of juice is equal to the amount found in approximately 23 to 92 g cooked carrots per day.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Esfahani A.
        • Wong J.M.
        • Truan J.
        • et al.
        Health effects of mixed fruit and vegetable concentrates: A systematic review of the clinical interventions.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2011; 30: 285-294
        • Crichton G.E.
        • Bryan J.
        • Murphy K.J.
        Dietary antioxidants, cognitive function and dementia—A systematic review.
        Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013; 68: 279-292
        • Deming D.M.
        • Boileau T.W.-M.
        • Heintz K.H.
        • Atkinson C.A.
        • Erdman J.W.
        Carotenoids: Linking chemistry, absorption, and metabolism to potential roles in human health and disease.
        in: Cadenas E. Packer L. Handbook of Antioxidants. Marcel-Dekker, New York, NY2002: 189-221
        • Smidt C.R.
        • Burke D.S.
        Nutritional significance and measurement of carotenoids.
        Curr Top Nutraceutical Res. 2004; 2: 79-91
        • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board
        Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids.
        The National Academies Press, Washington, DC2000
        • Mayne S.T.
        • Cartmel B.
        • Scarmo S.
        • Jahns L.
        • Ermakov I.V.
        • Gellermann W.
        Resonance Raman spectroscopic evaluation of skin carotenoids as a biomarker of carotenoid status for human studies.
        Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013; 539: 163-170
        • Zidichouski J.A.
        • Mastaloudis A.
        • Poole S.J.
        • Reading J.C.
        • Smidt C.R.
        Clinical validation of a noninvasive Raman spectroscopic method to assess carotenoid nutritional status in humans.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2009; 28: 687-693
        • Aguilar S.S.
        • Wengreen H.J.
        • Lefevre M.
        • Madden G.J.
        • Gast J.
        Skin carotenoids: A biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake in children.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 1174-1180
        • Ermakov I.V.
        • Sharifzadeh M.
        • Ermakova M.
        • Gellermann W.
        Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue.
        J Biomed Opt. 2005; 10: 064028
        • Burrows T.L.
        • Warren J.M.
        • Colyvas K.
        • Garg M.L.
        • Collins C.E.
        Validation of overweight children's fruit and vegetable intake using plasma carotenoids.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17: 162-168
        • Rerksuppaphol S.
        • Rerksuppaphol L.
        Effect of fruit and vegetable intake on skin carotenoid detected by non-invasive Raman spectroscopy.
        J Med Assoc Thai. 2006; 89: 1206-1212
        • Natarajan L.
        • Flatt S.W.
        • Sun X.
        • et al.
        Validity and systematic error in measuring carotenoid consumption with dietary self-report instruments.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2006:15; 163: 770-778
        • Scarmo S.
        • Henebery K.
        • Peracchio H.
        • Cartmel B.
        • Lin H.
        • Ermakov I.V.
        Skin carotenoid status measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy as a biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012; 66: 555-560
        • Tang G.
        • Hu Y.
        • Yin S.A.
        • et al.
        β-Carotene in golden rice is as good as β-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep; 96: 658-664
        • Vuong le T.
        • Dueker S.R.
        • Murphy S.P.
        Plasma beta-carotene and retinol concentrations of children increase after a 30-d supplementation with the fruit Momordica cochinchinensis (gac).
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 872-879
        • Nawiri M.P.
        • Nyambaka H.
        • Murungi J.I.
        Sun-dried cowpeas and amaranth leaves recipe improves β-carotene and retinol levels in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children.
        Eur J Nutr. 2013; 52: 583-589
        • Persson V.
        • Ahmed F.
        • Gebre-Medhin M.
        • Greiner T.
        Increase in serum beta-carotene following dark green leafy vegetable supplementation in Mebendazole-treated school children in Bangladesh.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001; 55: 1-9
        • Jahns L.
        • Johnson L.K.
        • Mayne S.T.
        • et al.
        Skin and plasma carotenoid response to a provided intervention diet high in vegetables and fruit: Uptake and depletion kinetics.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 100: 930-937
        • Le Marchand L.
        • Hankin J.H.
        • Carter F.S.
        • et al.
        A pilot study on the use of plasma carotenoids and ascorbic acid as markers of compliance to a high fruit and vegetable dietary intervention.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994; 3: 245-251
        • Neuhouser M.L.
        • Lilley S.
        • Lund A.
        • Johnson D.B.
        Development and validation of a beverage and snack questionnaire for use in evaluation of school nutrition policies.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1587-1592
      1. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. ASA24TM-Kids Web site. http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/tools/instruments/asa24/researcher/. Published September 2012. Accessed January 2013.

        • Baranowski T.
        • Islam N.
        • Baranowski J.
        • et al.
        The food intake recording software system is valid among fourth-grade children.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 380-385
        • Baranowski T.
        • Islam N.
        • Baranowski J.
        • et al.
        Comparison of a Web-based versus traditional diet recall among children.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012; 112: 527-532
        • Subar A.F.
        • Kirkpatrick S.I.
        • Mittl B.
        • et al.
        The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012; 112: 1134-1137
        • Lipsey M.
        • Wilson D.
        Practical Meta-Analysis.
        Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA2001
        • Holden J.M.
        • Eldridge A.L.
        • Beecher G.R.
        • et al.
        Carotenoid content of U.S. foods: An update of the database.
        J Food Comp Anal. 1999; 12: 169-196
        • Tanumihardjo S.A.
        • Horvitz M.A.
        • Dosti M.P.
        • Simon P.W.
        Serum alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations qualitatively respond to sustained carrot feeding.
        Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009; 234: 1280-1286
        • Borel P.
        • Grolier P.
        • Mekki N.
        • et al.
        Low and high responders to pharmacological doses of beta-carotene: Proportion in the population, mechanisms involved and consequences of beta-carotene metabolism.
        J Lipid Res. 1998; 39: 2250-2260
        • Crane T.E.
        • Kubota C.
        • West J.L.
        • Kroggel M.A.
        • Wertheim B.C.
        • Thomson C.A.
        Increasing the vegetable intake dose is associated with a rise in plasma carotenoids without modifying oxidative stress or inflammation in overweight or obese postmenopausal women.
        J Nutr. 2011; 141: 1827-1833
        • Resnicow K.
        • Odom E.
        • Wang T.
        • et al.
        Validation of three food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour recalls with serum carotenoid levels in a sample of African-American adults.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2000; 152: 1072-1080
        • Neuhouser M.L.
        • Rock C.L.
        • Eldridge A.L.
        • et al.
        Serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and the carotenoids are influenced by diet, race and obesity in a sample of healthy adolescents.
        J Nutr. 2001; 131: 2184-2191
        • de Pee S.
        • West C.E.
        • Permaesih D.
        • Martuti S.
        • Muhilal
        • Hautvast J.G.
        Orange fruit is more effective than are dark-green, leafy vegetables in increasing serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene in schoolchildren in Indonesia.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68: 1058-1067
        • Romieu I.
        • Castro-Giner F.
        • Kunzli N.
        • Sunyer J.
        Air pollution, oxidative stress and dietary supplementation: A review.
        Eur Respir J. 2008; 31: 179-197
        • Knai C.
        • Pomerleau J.
        • Lock K.
        • McKee M.
        Getting children to eat more fruit and vegetables: A systematic review.
        Prev Med. 2006; 42: 85-95

      Biography

      S. S. Aguilar is a senior research dietitian, Center for Human Nutrition Studies, Utah State University, Logan.

      Biography

      H. J. Wengreen is an associate professor, Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan.

      Biography

      J. Dew is an associate professor, Family, Child, and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan.