A Randomized Trial on the Effects of 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Korean Diet Patterns on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults

      Abstract

      Background

      Dietary patterns that are considered healthy (eg, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet and Mediterranean diet) may be more successful in reducing typical cardiovascular disease risks compared to dietary patterns considered unhealthy (eg, energy-dense diets such as the typical American diet).

      Objective

      This study assessed the effects of a Korean diet, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), and a typical American diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, including lipid levels and blood pressure, in overweight, non-Asian individuals in the United States with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

      Design/intervention

      The study was a three-period crossover, controlled-feeding study from January 2012 to May 2012. Thirty-one subjects were randomly allocated to one of six possible sequential orders for consuming the three diets for 4 weeks, each separated by a 10-day break. Data analysis included 27 subjects on the Korean diet periods and 29 in the DGA and typical American diet periods. Subjects remained weight stable.

      Main outcome measures

      Lipid profile, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and 24-hour urinary sodium were determined at baseline and at the end of each diet period.

      Statistical analyses performed

      The additive main effects multiplicative interactions model was used to test for a subject by diet interaction. Differences among diets were determined using a mixed-models procedure (PROC MIXED) with random intercept for each subject.

      Results

      Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased on Korean (P<0.0001 and P<0.01, respectively) and DGA (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) diets, but not on the typical American diet. Although an unfavorable outcome, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased on all three diets (Korean: P<0.0001; DGA: P<0.0001; typical American: P<0.05). No diet had a significant effect on serum triglycerides, but a slight increase in triglycerides in the Korean and decrease in the DGA resulted in a significant difference between these two diets (P<0.01). All three diets caused modest decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which reached statistical significance for DGA only (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). No diet had significant effect on fasting insulin, whereas fasting glucose decreased significantly on the Korean (P<0.01) and typical American (P<0.05) diets only. Urinary sodium output decreased significantly on DGA (P<0.0001).

      Conclusions

      After a 4-week feeding period, Korean and DGA diet patterns resulted in positive changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      N. Schroeder is a freelance consultant, Leipzig, Germany; at the time of the study, she was a research nutritionist, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      Y.-H. Park is a researcher, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

      Biography

      M.-S. Kang is a researcher, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

      Biography

      Y. Kim is a researcher, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

      Biography

      H.-R. Kim is a senior researcher, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

      Biography

      G. K. Ha is a research data analyst, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

      Biography

      B. Caballero is a professor, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; at the time of the study, he was also a visiting scientist, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

      Biography

      A. A. Yates is retired; at the time of the study, she was principal investigator, Research in Agriculture Virtual Laboratory (RAVL) Nutrition Study, and director, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD.