At-Risk and Underserved: A Proposed Role for Nutrition in the Adult Trajectory of Autism

Published:April 01, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.02.013
      To take the Continuing Professional Education quiz for this article, log in to www.eatrightPRO.org, go to the My Account section of the My Academy Toolbar, click the “Access Quiz” link, click “Journal Article Quiz” on the next page, and then click the “Additional Journal CPE quizzes” button to view a list of available quizzes.
      Autism is a broadly defined disorder of neurobiological origin with a complex genetic architecture affecting communication and social development.
      • Ecker C.
      • Spooren W.
      • Murphy D.
      Developing new pharmacotherapies for autism.
      Usually appearing during the first 3 years of life, autism is most typically observed as a set of highly individualized behaviors that reflect sensory abnormalities and motor impairment.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ecker C.
        • Spooren W.
        • Murphy D.
        Developing new pharmacotherapies for autism.
        J Intern Med. 2013; 274: 308-320
        • Bailey A.J.
        Autism in adults.
        Autism Res. 2012; 5: 1-2
        • Stein K.
        The politics and process of revising the DSM-V and the impact of changes on dietetics.
        J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014; 114: 350-365
        • Kanner L.
        Autistic disturbances of affective contact.
        Nerv Child. 1943; 2: 217-250
        • Merrick J.
        • Kandel I.
        • Morad M.
        Trends in autism.
        Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2004; 16: 75-78
      1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Data & Statistics. 2014; http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html. Accessed March 14, 2014.

        • Yeargin-Allsopp M.
        • Rice C.
        • Karapurkar T.
        • Doernberg N.
        • Boyle C.
        • Murphy C.
        Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area.
        JAMA. 2003; 289: 49-55
        • Fombonne E.
        Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: An update.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2003; 33: 365-382
        • Wazana A.
        • Bresnahan M.
        • Kline J.
        The autism epidemic: Fact or artifact?.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007; 46: 721-730
        • Isaksen J.
        • Diseth T.H.
        • Schjolberg S.
        • Skjeldal O.H.
        Autism spectrum disorders—Are they really epidemic?.
        Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2013; 17: 327-333
        • Levy F.
        The autism spectrum disorder ‘epidemic': Need for biopsychosocial formulation.
        Aust N Z J Psychiatry. Jan 2014; 48: 91-92
        • Liu K.Y.
        • King M.
        • Bearman P.S.
        Social influence and the autism epidemic.
        Am J Sociol. 2010; 115: 1387-1434
        • van den Hazel P.
        • Zuurbier M.
        • Babisch W.
        • et al.
        Today's epidemics in children: Possible relations to environmental pollution and suggested preventive measures.
        Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2006; 95: 18-25
        • Bishop D.V.
        • Whitehouse A.J.
        • Watt H.J.
        • Line E.A.
        Autism and diagnostic substitution: Evidence from a study of adults with a history of developmental language disorder.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008; 50: 341-345
        • Howlin P.
        Autism and diagnostic substitution.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008; 50: 325
        • King M.
        • Bearman P.
        Diagnostic change and the increased prevalence of autism.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2009; 38: 1224-1234
        • Piven J.
        • Rabins P.
        • on behalf of the Autism-In-Older Adults Working Group
        Autism spectrum disorders in older adults: Toward defining a research agenda.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 59: 2151-2155
        • Toth K.
        • Stobbe G.
        Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.
        Pediatr Ann. 2011; 40: 488-492
        • Larson S.A.
        • Lakin K.C.
        Changes in the primary diagnosis of students with intellectual or developmental disabilities ages 6 to 21 receiving special education services 1999 to 2008.
        Intellect Dev Disabil. 2010; 48: 233-238
        • Williams K.
        • Woolfenden S.
        • Roberts J.
        • Rodger S.
        • Bartak L.
        • Prior M.
        Autism in context 1: Classification, counting and causes.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2014; 50: 335-340
        • Ganz M.L.
        The costs of autism.
        in: Moldin S.O. Rubenstein J.L.R. Understanding Autism: from Basic Neuroscience to Treatment. CRC/Taylor & Frances, Boca Raton, FL2006: 475-502
        • Ganz M.L.
        The lifetime distribution of the incremental societal costs of autism.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161: 343-349
        • Graetz J.E.
        Autism grows up: Opportunities for adults with autism.
        Disabil Soc. 2010; 25: 33-47
        • Stortz J.N.
        • Lake J.K.
        • Cobigo V.
        • Ouellette-Kuntz H.M.J.
        • Lunsky Y.
        Lessons learned from our elders: How to study polypharmacy in populations with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
        Intellect Dev Disabil. 2014; 52: 60-77
        • Shattuck P.T.
        • Seltzer M.M.
        • Greenberg J.S.
        • et al.
        Change in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors in adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2007; 37: 1735-1747
        • Howlin P.
        • Savage S.
        • Moss P.
        • Tempier A.
        • Rutter M.
        Cognitive and language skills in adults with autism: A 40-year follow-up.
        J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014; 55: 49-58
        • Seltzer M.M.
        • Shattuck P.
        • Abbeduto L.
        • Greenberg J.S.
        Trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism.
        Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2004; 10: 234-247
        • Perkins E.A.
        • Berkman K.A.
        Into the unknown: Aging with autism spectrum disorders.
        Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012; 117: 478-496
        • Fombonne E.
        Autism in adult life.
        Can J Psychiatry. 2012; 57: 273-274
        • Strax T.E.
        • Luciano L.
        • Dunn A.M.
        • Quevedo J.P.
        Aging and developmental disability.
        Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2010; 21: 419-427
        • Kushak R.I.
        • Lauwers G.Y.
        • Winter H.S.
        • Buie T.M.
        Intestinal disaccharidase activity in patients with autism: Effect of age, gender, and intestinal inflammation.
        Autism. 2011; 15: 285-294
        • Bilder D.
        • Botts E.L.
        • Smith K.R.
        • et al.
        Excess mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: A follow up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2013; 43: 1196-1204
        • Memari A.
        • Ziaee V.
        • Mirfazeli F.
        • Kordi R.
        Investigation of autism comorbidities and associations in a school-based community sample.
        J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2012; 25: 84-90
        • Bauman M.L.
        Medical comorbidities in autism: Challenges to diagnosis and treatment.
        Neurotherapeutics. 2010; 7: 320-327
        • Crepin S.
        • Godet B.
        • Chassain B.
        • Preux P.M.
        • Desport J.C.
        Malnutrition and epilepsy: A two-way relationship.
        Clin Nutr. 2009; 28: 219-225
        • Napoli E.
        • Duenas N.
        • Giulivi C.
        Potential therapeutic use of the ketogenic diet in autism spectrum disorders.
        Front Pediatr. 2014; 2: 69
        • Galli-Carminati G.
        • Chauvet I.
        • Deriaz N.
        Prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in adult clients with pervasive developmental disorders.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2006; 50: 711-718
        • Buie T.
        • Campbell D.B.
        • Fuchs 3rd, G.J.
        • et al.
        Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: A consensus report.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 125: S1-S18
        • Peebles K.A.
        • Price T.J.
        Self-injurious behaviour in intellectual disability syndromes: Evidence for aberrant pain signalling as a contributing factor.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012; 56: 441-452
        • Fodstad J.C.
        • Matson J.L.
        A comparison of feeding and mealtime problems in adults with intellectual disabilities with and without autism.
        J Dev Phys Disabil. 2008; 20: 541-550
        • Kodak T.
        • Piazza C.C.
        Assessment and behavioral treatment of feeding and sleeping disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008; 17 (x-xi): 887-905
        • Gravestock S.
        Eating disorders in adults with intellectual disability.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2000; 44: 625-637
        • Gravestock S.
        Diagnosis and classification of eating disorders in adults with intellectual disability: The Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Learning Disabilities/Mental Retardation (DC-LD) approach.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2003; 47: 72-83
        • Cermak S.A.
        • Curtin C.
        • Bandini L.G.
        Food selectivity and sensory sensitivity in children with autism spectrum disorders.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 238-246
        • Tavassoli T.
        • Baron-Cohen S.
        Taste Identification in adults with autism spectrum conditions.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2012; 42: 1419-1424
        • Galle S.A.
        • Courchesne V.
        • Mottron L.
        • Frasnelli J.
        Olfaction in the autism spectrum.
        Perception. 2013; 42: 341-355
        • Gal E.
        • Hardal-Nasser R.
        • Engel-Yeger B.
        The relationship between the severity of eating problems and intellectual developmental deficit level.
        Res Dev Disabil. 2011; 32: 1464-1469
        • Bertoli S.
        • Battezzati A.
        • Merati G.
        • et al.
        Nutritional status and dietary patterns in disabled people.
        Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006; 16: 100-112
        • Adolfsson P.
        • Sydner Y.M.
        • Fjellstrom C.
        • Lewin B.
        • Andersson A.
        Observed dietary intake in adults with intellectual disability living in the community.
        Food Nutr Res. 2008; : 52
        • Melville C.A.
        • Cooper S.A.
        • Morrison J.
        • Allan L.
        • Smiley E.
        • Williamson A.
        The prevalence and determinants of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities.
        J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2008; 21: 425-437
        • Rimmer J.H.
        • Yamaki K.
        Obesity and intellectual disability.
        Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2006; 12: 22-27
        • Stancliffe R.J.
        • Lakin K.C.
        • Larson S.
        • et al.
        Overweight and obesity among adults with intellectual disabilities who use intellectual disability/developmental disability services in 20 US States.
        Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2011; 116: 401-418
        • Yamaki K.
        Body weight status among adults with intellectual disability in the community.
        Ment Retard. 2005; 43: 1-10
        • Heller T.
        • McCubbin J.A.
        • Drum C.
        • Peterson J.
        Physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions: What is working for people with intellectual disabilities?.
        Intellect Dev Disabil. 2011; 49: 26-36
        • McDermott S.
        • Moran R.
        • Platt T.
        • Dasari S.
        Prevalence of diabetes in persons with disabilities in primary care.
        J Dev Phys Disabil. 2007; 19: 263-271
        • Shireman T.I.
        • Reichard A.
        • Nazir N.
        • Backes J.M.
        • Greiner K.A.
        Quality of diabetes care for adults with developmental disabilities.
        Disabil Health J. 2010; 3: 179-185
        • Lunsky Y.
        • Lin E.
        • Balogh R.
        • Klein-Geltink J.
        Datapoints: Diabetes prevalence among persons with serious mental illness and developmental disability.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2011; 62: 830
        • Reichard A.
        • Stolzle H.
        Diabetes among adults with cognitive limitations compared to individuals with no cognitive disabilities.
        Intellect Dev Disabil. 2011; 49: 141-154
        • de Winter C.F.
        • Bastiaannse L.P.
        • Hilgenkamp T.I.M.
        • Evenhuis H.M.
        • Echteld M.A.
        Cardiovascular risk factors in older adults with intellectual disability.
        Res Dev Disabil. 2012; 33: 1722-1731
        • Sohler N.
        • Lubetkin E.
        • Levy J.
        • Soghomonian C.
        • Rimmerman A.
        Factors associated with obesity and coronary heart disease in people with intellectual disabilities.
        Social Work Health Care. 2009; 48: 76-89
      2. AutismSpeaks.org. Adults with Autism Suffer High Rates of Most Major Disorders. 2014; http://www.autismspeaks.org/science/science-news/adults-autism-suffer-high-rates-most-major-disorders. Accessed December 23, 2014.

        • Wee L.E.
        • Koh G.C.H.
        • Auyong L.S.
        • et al.
        Screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors at baseline and post intervention among adults with intellectual disabilities in an urbanised Asian society.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2014; 58: 255-268
        • Henderson C.M.
        • Robinson L.M.
        • Davidson P.W.
        • Haveman M.
        • Janicki M.P.
        • Albertini G.
        Overweight status, obesity, and risk factors for coronary heart disease in adults with intellectual disability.
        J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil. 2008; 5: 174-177
        • Tyler C.V.
        • Schramm S.C.
        • Karafa M.
        • Tang A.S.
        • Jain A.K.
        Chronic disease risks in young adults with autism spectrum disorder: Forewarned is forearmed.
        Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2011; 116: 371-380
        • Rimmer J.H.
        • Yamaki K.
        • Lowry B.M.
        • Wang E.
        • Vogel L.C.
        Obesity and obesity-related secondary conditions in adolescents with intellectual/developmental disabilities.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2010; 54: 787-794
        • Taggart L.
        • Coates V.
        • Truesdale-Kennedy M.
        Management and quality indicators of diabetes mellitus in people with intellectual disabilities.
        J Intellect Disabil Res. 2013; 57: 1152-1163
        • Kawicka A.
        • Regulska-Ilow B.
        How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.
        Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny. 2013; 64: 1-12
        • Onore C.
        • Careaga M.
        • Ashwood P.
        The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism.
        Brain Behav Immun. 2012; 26: 383-392
        • Theoharides T.C.
        • Asadi S.
        • Patel A.B.
        Focal brain inflammation and autism.
        J Neuroinflammation. 2013; 10: 46
        • Kotey S.
        • Ertel K.
        • Whitcomb B.
        Co-occurrence of autism and asthma in a nationally-representative sample of children in the United States.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2014; 44: 3083-3088
        • de Theije C.G.M.
        • Bavelaar B.M.
        • da Silva S.L.
        • et al.
        Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders.
        Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014; 25: 218-226
        • Mulle J.G.
        • Sharp W.G.
        • Cubells J.F.
        The gut microbiome: A new frontier in autism research.
        Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013; 15: 337
        • Gilbert J.A.
        • Krajmalnik-Brown R.
        • Porazinska D.L.
        • Weiss S.J.
        • Knight R.
        Toward effective probiotics for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.
        Cell. 2013; 155: 1446-1448
        • Humphries K.
        • Traci M.A.
        • Seekins T.
        Food on film: Pilot test of an innovative method for recording food intake of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the community.
        J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2008; 21: 173
        • Froehlich-Grobe K.
        • Lee J.
        • Washburn R.A.
        Disparities in obesity and related conditions among Americans with disabilities.
        Am J Prev Med. 2013; 45: 83-90
        • National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
        US Surveillance of Health of People with Intellectual Disabilities: A White Paper.
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA2010
        • Whiteley P.
        • Shattock P.
        • Knivsberg A.M.
        • et al.
        Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.
        Front Hum Neurosci. 2012; 6: 344
        • Ahearn W.H.
        Using simultaneous presentation to increase vegetable consumption in a mildly selective child with autism.
        J Appl Behav Anal. 2003; 36: 361-365
        • Agran M.
        • Fodor-Davis J.
        • Moore S.C.
        • Martella R.C.
        Effects of peer-delivered self-instructional training on a lunch-making work task for students with severe disabilities.
        Educ Train Ment Retard. 1992; 27: 230-240
        • Fiscus R.S.
        • Schuster J.W.
        • Morse T.E.
        • Collins B.C.
        Teaching elementary students with cognitive disabilities food preparation skills while embedding instructive feedback in the prompt and consequent event.
        Educ Train Dev Disabil. 2002; 37: 55-69
        • Pierce K.L.
        • Schreibman L.
        Teaching daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management.
        J Appl Behav Anal. 1994; 27: 471-481
        • Mechling L.C.
        • Ayres K.M.
        • Foster A.L.
        • Bryant K.J.
        Comparing the effects of commercially available and custom-made video prompting for teaching cooking skills to high school students with autism.
        Remed Spec Educ. 2013; 34: 371-383
        • Brooks B.M.
        • Rose F.D.
        • Attree E.A.
        • Elliot-Square A.
        An evaluation of the efficacy of training people with learning disabilities in a virtual environment.
        Disabil Rehabil. 2002; 24: 622-626
        • Gines D.J.
        • Schweitzer J.R.
        • Queen-Autrey T.
        • Carthon P.
        Use of color-coded food photographs for meal planning by adults with mental retardation.
        Ment Retard. 1990; 28: 189-190
        • Harrington C.
        • Ng T.
        • Laplante M.
        • Kaye H.S.
        Medicaid home- and community-based services: Impact of the Affordable Care Act.
        J Aging Soc Policy. 2012; 24: 169-187
        • Chu Y.L.
        • Farmer A.
        • Fung C.
        • Kuhle S.
        • Storey K.E.
        • Veugelers P.J.
        Involvement in home meal preparation is associated with food preference and self-efficacy among Canadian children.
        Public Health Nutr. 2013; 16: 108-112
        • Archuleta M.
        • VanLeeuwen D.
        • Halderson K.
        • et al.
        Cooking schools improve nutrient intake patterns of people with type 2 diabetes.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012; 44: 319-325
        • Clifford D.
        • Anderson J.
        • Auld G.
        • Champ J.
        Good grubbin': Impact of a TV cooking show for college students living off campus.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009; 41: 194-200
        • Hartmann C.
        • Dohle S.
        • Siegrist M.
        Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices.
        Appetite. 2013; 65: 125-131
        • Condrasky M.D.
        • Baruth M.
        • Wilcox S.
        • Carter C.
        • Jordan J.F.
        Cooks training for Faith, Activity, and Nutrition project with AME churches in SC.
        Eval Program Plann. 2013; 37: 43-49
        • Keller H.H.
        • Gibbs A.
        • Wong S.
        • Vanderkooy P.D.
        • Hedley M.
        Men can cook! Development, implementation, and evaluation of a senior men's cooking group.
        J Nutr Elder. 2004; 24: 71-87
        • Wrieden W.L.
        • Symon A.
        The development and pilot evaluation of a nutrition education intervention programme for pregnant teenage women (food for life).
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 2003; 16: 67-71
        • Larson N.I.
        • Perry C.L.
        • Story M.
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        Food preparation by young adults is associated with better diet quality.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 2001-2007
        • Myers L.A.
        • Pope J.F.
        Nutrition, food, and wellness: Rationale and resources for implementation in family and consumer sciences teacher preparaton programs.
        Fam Consumer Sci Educ. 2009; 27: 13-28
        • Shattuck P.T.
        • Narendorf S.C.
        • Cooper B.
        • Sterzing P.R.
        • Wagner M.
        • Taylor J.L.
        Postsecondary education and employment among youth with an autism spectrum disorder.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 129: 1042-1049
        • Elsabbagh M.
        • Yusuf A.
        • Prasanna S.
        • Shikako-Thomas K.
        • Ruff C.A.
        • Fehlings M.G.
        Community engagement and knowledge translation: Progress and challenge in autism research.
        Autism. 2014; 18: 771-781