Advertisement

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Food and Water Safety

Published:October 24, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.08.023

      Abstract

      It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have access to a safe food and water supply. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports science-based food and water regulations and recommendations that are applied consistently across all foods and water regulated by all agencies and incorporate traceability and recall to limit food- and waterborne outbreaks. Registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered, are encouraged to participate in policy decisions, program development, and implementation of a food safety culture. Food safety affects all segments of the population in a global society, and, although the United States food and water system has many protections in place, food safety continues to be a public health concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in six Americans are sickened, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die annually from foodborne disease. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates for foodborne illness, it is estimated that the basic cost-of-illness averages $1,068/episode with a total annual cost of $51 billion. The food safety system is challenged by changing demographics, consumer preferences for convenience and variety, and issues of concern in the commercial food chain and in regulatory systems. The 2011-enacted Food Safety Modernization Act is an extensive expansion of federal food regulatory authority that mandates a risk-based food safety system approach and focuses on comprehensive science-based preventive measures across the total food safety system. Registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered, have unique roles in promoting and establishing food safety cultures in foodservice settings, clinical practices, community settings, and in public venues because their training integrates food; science; and health, both preventive and therapeutic.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/2011-foodborne-estimates.html. Updated June 21, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

        • Scharff R.L.
        Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States.
        J Food Protect. 2012; 75: 123-131
      2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Food Safety. HealthyPeople.gov website. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=14. Updated November 13, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      3. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma/. Updated November 20, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      4. US Food and Drug Administration. Food protection plan. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FoodProtectionPlan2007/ucm132565.htm. Updated June 17, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      5. Blakenship J, Tuma P. Comments to RDA re Food Safety Modernization Act implementation. http://www.eatright.org/advocacy/comments/. Published November 15, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      6. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Public policy priority areas. http://www.eatright.org/Members/content.aspx?id=8581. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      7. World Health Organization. Prevention of foodborne disease: The five keys to safer food. http://www.who.int/topics/food_safety/flyer_keys_en.pdf?ua=1. Accessed September 27, 2014.

      8. Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards. Safe, good food for everyone. http://www.codexalimentarius.org. Updated August 28, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      9. US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Food safety principles and guidance for consumers in Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      10. Government Accounting Office. Federal food safety oversight food safety working group is a positive first step but government wide planning is needed to address fragmentation. http://www.gao.gov/assets/320/316742.pdf. Accessed May 21, 2014.

      11. US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service. http://www.fsis.usda.gov. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      12. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Seafood Inspection Program. http://www.seafood.nmfs.noaa.gov. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      13. Congressional Research Center. The Federal Food Safety System: A primer. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS22600.pdf. January 2014. Accessed May 20, 2014.

      14. US Environmental Protection Agency. Pesticides and consumers. http://www2.epa.gov/safepestcontrol. Updated October 28, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      15. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). http://www.cdc.gov/nors/. Updated November 5, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      16. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Updated April 18, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      17. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PulseNet. http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/. Updated September 9, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      18. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net). http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/EHSNet/. Updated November 13, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      19. US Food and Drug Administration. CORE network background paper. http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/Outbreaks/ucm310260.htm. Updated August 27, 2013. Accessed January 12, 2014.

      20. Conference for Food Protection. http://www.foodprotect.org/. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      21. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS). http://www.cdc.gov/narms/. Updated October 21, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      22. Food Safety.gov. Recalls and alerts. http://www.foodsafety.gov/recalls/index.html. Accessed November 23, 2013.

        • Bhatt T.
        • Hickey C.
        • McEntire J.
        Pilot projects for improving product tracing along the food supply system.
        J Food Sci. 2013; 78: B34-B39
      23. The Partnership for Food Safety Education. http://www.fightbac.org/. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      24. US Food and Drug Administration. Bad bug book: Foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/UCM297627.pdf. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      25. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Food safety. http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/. Updated November 14, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      26. US Food and Drug Administration. Foodborne illness and contaminants. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/default.htm. Updated August 28, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      27. US Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking water contaminants. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index.cfm. Updated June 3, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      28. US National Library of Medicine. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      29. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. Grading, certification and verification. http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/gapghp. Updated October 30, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      30. World Health Organization. 20 questions on genetically modified foods. http://www.fda.gov.ph/attachments/article/79847/20%20Questions%20on%20Genetically%20Modified%20(GM)%20Foods.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      31. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors on labeling of genetically modified foods. http://www.aaas.org/sites/default/files/AAAS_GM_statement.pdf. Published October 20, 2012. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      32. US Food and Drug Administration. Safe practices for food processes. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/SafePracticesforFoodProcesses/default.htm. Updated April 9, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      33. US Food and Drug Administration. Raw milk & pasteurized milk. http://www.fda.gov/Food/ucm293042.htm. Updated May 28, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      34. US Food and Drug Administration. Food facts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Talking about juice safety: What you need to know. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/BuyStoreServeSafeFood/ucm110526.htm. March 22, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      35. US Food and Drug Administration. Food facts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Playing it safe with eggs. http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm077342.htm. Updated March 13, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      36. US Food and Drug Administration. Overview of food ingredients, additives & colors. http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm094211.htm. Updated April 2010. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      37. US Food and Drug Administration. Sanitation & transportation guidance documents & regulatory information guidance documents. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/SanitationTransportation/default.htm. June 17, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      38. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Food Code 2013. http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection/foodcode/ucm374275.htm. Updated November 21, 2013. Accessed January 12, 2014.

      39. US Food and Drug Administration. Food facts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fresh and frozen seafood: Selecting and serving it safely. http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm077331.htm. Updated October 31, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      40. US Food and Drug Administration. Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HACCP). http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/HACCP/. Updated July 5, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      41. US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service. HACCP. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/regulatory-compliance/haccp. Updated September 5, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      42. US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS—2008—0033]. School food safety program based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles. Final rule. 239 Federal Register 66213-66217 (2009).

      43. US Food and Drug Administration. Microwave oven radiation. http://www.fda.gov/radiation-emittingproducts/resourcesforyouradiationemittingproducts/ucm252762.htm. Updated April 26, 2011. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      44. The Partnership for Food Safety Education. Cook it safe. http://www.fightbac.org/cookitsafe. Published 2010. Accessed November 23, 2013.

        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks—United States, 1998–2008.
        MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013; 62: 1-34
      45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak response team. http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/fdoss/index.html. Updated November 12, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      46. US Food and Drug Administration. Salmonella Saint Paul outbreak. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm179116.htm. Updated August 25, 2009. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      47. US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Vegetables and pulses data. http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/vegetables-and-pulses-data.aspx#.UpJnhyiTwhw. Updated October 24, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. List of selected multistate foodborne outbreak investigations. http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/outbreaks/multistate-outbreaks/outbreaks-list.html. Updated November 15, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      49. US Food and Drug Administration. Food facts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food safety: It’s especially important for at-risk groups. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/PeopleAtRisk/ucm352830.htm. Updated May 30, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

        • Medeiros L.C.
        • Buffer J.
        Current food safety knowledge of registered dietitians.
        Food Protect Trends. 2012; 32: 688-696
      50. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Emergency preparedness—What RDNs and DTRs should know. http://www.eatright.org/Members/content.aspx?id=2187. Accessed November 13, 2013.

      51. US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service. A consumer’s guide to food safety: Severe storms and hurricanes. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/emergency-preparedness/a-consumers-guide-to-food-safety-severe-storms-and-hurricanes/ct_index. Updated August 8, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      52. US Food and Drug Administration. What consumers need to know about food and water safety during hurricanes, power outages, and floods. http://www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/emergencies/ucm076881.htm. Updated September 2, 2014. Accessed September 27, 2014.

      53. US Federal Emergency Management Agency and the American Red Cross. Food and water in an emergency. http://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/f&web.pdf. August 2004. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      54. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Alert Network. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/han/. Updated October 8, 2013. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      55. US Department of Agriculture. Food safety. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=FOOD_SAFETY. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      56. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Kids eat right. http://www.eatright.org/kids/. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      57. Home food safety. http://homefoodsafety.org/. Accessed November 23, 2013.

      58. Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND). DE: ACEND accreditation standards for dietitian education programs leading to the RD credential. https://www.eatright.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=6442468848. Accessed August 9, 2014.

      59. Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND). IP: ACEND accreditation standards for internship programs in nutrition & dietetics leading to the RD credential. https://www.eatright.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=6442468850. Accessed August 9, 2014.

      60. Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND). TE: ACEND accreditation standards for dietetic technician education programs leading to the DTR credential. https://www.eatright.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=6442468847. Accessed August 9, 2014.

        • Buffer J.
        • Kendall P.
        • Medeiros L.
        • Schroeder M.
        • Sofos J.
        Nurses and dietitians differ in food safety information provided to highly susceptible clients.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2013; 45: 102-108