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Egg n-3 Fatty Acid Composition Modulates Biomarkers of Choline Metabolism in Free-Living Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian Women of Reproductive Age

Published:April 13, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.02.012

      Abstract

      The lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) dietary regimen allows eggs, which are a rich source of choline. Consumption of eggs by LOV women may be especially important during pregnancy and lactation when demand for choline is high. The aim of this single blind, randomized, crossover-feeding study was to determine how near-daily egg consumption influenced biomarkers of choline metabolism in healthy LOV women of reproductive age (n=15). Because long-chain n-3 fatty acids could influence choline metabolism, the effect of n-3–enriched vs nonenriched eggs on choline metabolites was also investigated. Three 8-week dietary treatments consisting of six n-3–enriched eggs per week, six nonenriched eggs per week, and an egg-free control phase were separated by 4-week washout periods. Choline metabolites were quantified in fasted plasma collected before and after each treatment and differences in posttreatment choline metabolite concentrations were determined with linear mixed models. The n-3–enriched and nonenriched egg treatments produced different choline metabolite profiles compared with the egg-free control; however, response to the eggs did not differ (P>0.1). Consumption of the n-3–enriched egg treatment yielded higher plasma free choline (P=0.02) and betaine (P<0.01) (vs egg-free control) concentrations, whereas consumption of the nonenriched egg treatment yielded borderline higher (P=0.06) plasma phosphatidylcholine (vs egg-free control) levels. Neither egg treatment increased levels of plasma trimethylamine oxide, a gut-flora–dependent oxidative choline metabolite implicated as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Overall these data suggest that egg fatty-acid composition modulates the metabolic use of choline.

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      Biography

      A. A. West is a postdoctoral associate, Division of Nutritional Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

      Biography

      M. A. Caudill is a professor, Division of Nutritional Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

      Biography

      Y. Shih is a renal dietitian, DaVita Dialysis Center, Montclair, CA; at the time of the study, she was a graduate student, Department of Human Nutrition and Food Science, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.

      Biography

      W. Wang is a lecturer, Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

      Biography

      K. Oda is a statistician and instructor, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Population Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

      Biography

      K. Jaceldo-Siegl is an assistant research professor, Department of Nutrition, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

      Biography

      J. Sabaté is a professor, Department of Nutrition, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

      Biography

      E. Haddad is an associate professor, Department of Nutrition, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

      Biography

      S. Rajaram is an associate professor, Department of Nutrition, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

      Biography

      B. Burns-Whitmore is a professor, Department of Human Nutrition and Food Science, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.