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Traditional Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Elevated Cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik

Published:February 13, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.12.017

      Abstract

      Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A sample of 666 Inuit aged 18 years and older was included in our analyses. Dietary patterns were generated by principal component analysis. Multivariate general linear models adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and other potential confounders were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors. Four distinct patterns were identified, namely the traditional, Western, nutrient-poor food, and healthy patterns. The traditional pattern showed positive associations with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100, LDL peak particle diameter, and oxidized LDL (all P values for trend≤0.04), but showed no association with the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio or with inflammatory biomarkers (all P values for trend ≥0.19). The nutrient-poor food pattern was positively associated with oxidized LDL (P=0.04), but inversely associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P<0.0001). The Western and healthy patterns showed no association with any CVD risk factor. Our data show that high adherence to a traditional pattern among Nunavik Inuit is not associated with important changes in CVD risk factors, with the exception of a slight elevation in cholesterol concentrations, most likely attributable to increased n-3 fatty acid intake. Dietary patterns reflecting the recent introduction of market foods in the Inuit diet appear to exert a trivial influence on CVD risk factors.

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      Biography

      M.-È. Labonté is a doctoral degree student, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      B. Lamarche is a professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      P. Couture is a professor, Department of Medicine, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      É. Dewailly is a professor, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Axis of Public Health and Optimal Practices in Health, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec (CHUQ), Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      M. Lucas is an associate professor, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Axis of Public Health and Optimal Practices in Health, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec (CHUQ), Québec, Canada.

      Biography

      M.-L. Chateau-Degat is an adjunct professor, Family Emergency Medicine Department, Laval University, Hyperbaric Medicine Unit, and Gas Pharmacology Research Unit at Research Center of the Centre de santé et services sociaux Alphonse Desjardins/Centre hospitalier affilié universitaire de Lévis, Lévis, Québec, Canada, and a researcher, Axis of Public Health and Optimal Practices in Health, Centre de recherche du CHUQ, Québec, Canada.