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Associations of Vitamin D Intake with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Racially/Ethnically Diverse US Children

Published:August 02, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.025

      Abstract

      Overweight children and minorities are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Little information exists on whether overweight children and minorities who do not meet dietary vitamin D recommendations are at risk for low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status. Vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements was estimated in 3,310 children/adolescents who were examined as part of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight status was dichotomized into healthy weight or overweight/obese. Parent-reported race/ethnicity was categorized as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, or other. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine whether children who did not achieve the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) were at increased risk for inadequate 25OHD. Nearly 75% of children failed to meet the EAR. Overall, not meeting the EAR was associated with inadequate 25OHD (odds ratio=2.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 4.5). However, this association differed by weight status (P=0.02) and race/ethnicity (P=0.02). Overweight/obese children who failed to meet the EAR were five times more likely to be at risk for inadequate 25OHD than overweight/obese children who met it (95% CI 2.0 to 12.7; P<0.001). Non-Hispanic blacks with intakes below the EAR were nearly four times more likely to be at risk for inadequate 25OHD than those who met the EAR (95% CI 1.5 to 9.7; P<0.01). The majority of US children failed to meet current vitamin D recommendations. Overweight/obese and non-Hispanic black children were especially likely to be at risk for inadequate 25OHD when not consuming the EAR.

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      Biography

      L. E. Au is a researcher, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA.

      Biography

      J. M. Sacheck is an associate professor, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA.

      Biography

      G. T. Rogers is a senior statistical programmer, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, MA.

      Biography

      S. S. Harris is an associate professor, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, and a scientist I, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, MA.

      Biography

      J. T. Dwyer is a professor, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, and a senior scientist, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, MA.

      Biography

      P. F Jacques is a professor, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, and a senior scientist, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, MA.