Association between Frequency of Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption, Nutrient Intakes, and Body Mass Index in Fourth- to Sixth-Grade Low-Income Minority Children

Published:February 27, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.01.006

      Abstract

      Background

      The consumption of non-ready-to-eat cereal and ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) breakfasts have been associated with increased nutrient intakes and lower body mass index (BMI). These relationships have not been examined in low-income minority children.

      Objectives

      To evaluate, in low-income minority children, whether there is a relationship among the frequency of RTEC consumption and nutrient intakes measured at baseline, and whether there is a relationship between the frequency of RTEC and BMI controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and energy intake.

      Design

      A longitudinal study design where a cohort was followed for 3 years.

      Subjects/setting

      Participants were 625 fourth- through sixth-grade, low-income children living in San Antonio, Texas, and enrolled in the control arm of the Bienestar Diabetes Prevention Program's cluster randomized trial. Three multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at the beginning of their fourth-grade year and at the end of their fifth- and sixth-grade years. Children's age, sex, ethnicity, and height and weight (used to calculate BMI) were collected between August 2001 and May 2004.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. The frequency of breakfast consumption was examined using a 6×4 cross-tabulation table with χ2 test to establish categorical differences. The degree of association between BMI percentile and frequency of RTEC consumption adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and nutrition-related parameters were calculated using a partial correlation multivariate linear model analysis.

      Results

      There was a significant positive relationship between the frequency of RTEC consumption and nutrient intakes measured at baseline. There was also a significant inverse relationship between frequency of RTEC consumption and BMI percentile over the cumulative 3-year period controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and energy intake.

      Conclusions

      Children who frequently consumed RTEC had greater intakes of essential nutrients at baseline and significantly lower BMI over a 3-year period.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      L. Balvin Frantzen is vice president, health and wellness, Dairy MAX, San Antonio, TX.

      Biography

      R. P. Treviño is director, Social and Health Research Center, San Antonio, TX.

      Biography

      R. M. Echon is director, evaluation and data management, Social and Health Research Center, San Antonio, TX.

      Biography

      O. Garcia-Dominic is assistant professor of Public Health Sciences, and Biobehavioral Health, College of Medicine, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.

      Biography

      N. DiMarco is a professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, and director, Institute for Women's Health, Texas Woman's University, Denton.