Dose-Dependent Consumption of Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Increases Plasma Phospholipid n-3 Fatty Acids Differentially

Published:January 23, 2013DOI:


      Enhanced n-3 fatty acid intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (eg, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized three-period crossover-designed trial (4-week treatment, 4- to 8-week washout) to compare the effects of twice per week consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women (mean age 40 to 65 years) and a body mass index between 25 and 34.9. All study visits were conducted at the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. Eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 concentrations were increased (P<0.05) by all treatments in a dose–response manner, with total n-3 of 8.03%±0.26% and 9.21%±0.26% for 180- and 270-g doses, respectively. Linoleic acid did not change in response to treatment, whereas arachidonic acid (P<0.05) and total n-6 fatty acids decreased dose dependently (<0.0001). The addition of farmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice per week for 4 weeks at portions of 180 g and 270 g modifies phospholipid fatty acid proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Cordain L.
        • Eaton S.B.
        • Sebastian A.
        • et al.
        Origins and evolution of the Western diet: Health implications for the 21st century.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 341-354
        • Blasbalg T.L.
        • Hibbeln J.R.
        • Ramsden C.E.
        • Majchrzak S.F.
        • Rawlings R.R.
        Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 93: 950-962
        • US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services
        Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010.
        7th ed. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC2010
        • Lichtenstein A.H.
        • Appel L.J.
        • Brands M.
        • et al.
        Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee.
        Circulation. 2006; 114: 82-96
        • Lloyd-Jones D.M.
        • Hong Y.
        • Labarthe D.
        • et al.
        Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The American Heart Association's strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond.
        Circulation. 2010; 121: 586-613
        • Kris-Etherton P.
        • Harris W.S.
        • Appel LJ for the Nutrition Committee
        Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease.
        Circulation. 2002; 106: 2747-2757
        • Dahl T.E.
        Status and trends of wetlands in the conterminous United States 1998 to 2004.
        (Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service website) (Accessed April 12, 2012)
        • Harris W.S.
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Lefevre M.
        • et al.
        Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.
        J Nutr. 2009; 139: 804S-819S
        • Harris W.S.
        • Kris-Etherton P.M.
        • Harris K.A.
        Intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk for death from coronary heart disease in healthy adults.
        Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008; 10: 503-509
        • Makhoul Z.
        • Kristal A.R.
        • Gulati R.
        • Bersamin A.
        • Boyer B.
        • Mohatt G.V.
        Associations of very high intakes of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with biomarkers of chronic disease among the Yup'ik Eskimos.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 91: 777-785
        • Raatz S.K.
        • Golovko M.Y.
        • Brose S.A.
        • et al.
        Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
        J Ag Food Chem. 2011; 59: 11278-11286
        • Matthews D.R.
        • Hosker J.P.
        • Rudenski A.S.
        • Naylor B.A.
        • Treacher D.F.
        • Turner R.C.
        Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and b-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.
        Diabetologia. 1985; 28: 412-419
        • Arterburn L.M.
        • Hall E.B.
        • Oken H.
        Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 3: 1467S-1476S
        • Vidgren H.M.
        • Agren J.J.
        • Schwab U.
        • Rissanen T.
        • Hanninen O.
        • Uusitupa M.I.J.
        Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into plasma lipid fractions, and erythrocyte membranes and platelets during dietary supplementation with fish, fish oil, and docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil in healthy young men.
        Lipids. 1997; 32: 697-705
        • Calzada C.
        • Colas R.
        • Guillot N.
        • et al.
        Subgram daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation in healthy men.
        Atherosclerosis. 2010; 208: 467-472
        • Brossard N.
        • Croset M.
        • Pachiauadi C.
        • Riou J.P.
        • Tayot J.L.
        Retroconversion and metabolism of [13C]22:6n-3 in humans and rats after intake of a single dose of [13C]22:6n-3-triacylglycerols.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1996; 64: 577-586
        • Visioli F.
        • Rise P.
        • Barassi M.C.
        • Marangoni F.
        • Galli C.
        Dietary intake of fish vs. formulations leads to higher plasma concentrations of n-3 fatty acids.
        Lipids. 2003; 38: 415-418
        • Harris W.S.
        • Pottala J.V.
        • Sands S.A.
        • Jones P.G.
        Comparison of the effects of fish and fish oil capsules on the and free fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: 1621-1625
        • Elvevoll E.O.
        • Barstad H.
        • Breimo E.S.
        • et al.
        Enhanced incorporation on n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.
        Lipids. 2006; 41: 1109-1114
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Lemaitre R.N.
        • King I.B.
        • et al.
        Circulating long chain w-3 fatty acids and incidence of congestive heart failure in older adults: The cardiovascular health study.
        Ann Intern Med. 2011; 155: 160-170
        • Young L.R.
        • Kurzer M.S.
        • Thomas W.
        • Redmon J.B.
        • Raatz S.K.
        Effects of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acid intake on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled feeding trial.
        Nutr Cancer. 2011; 63: 930-939


      S. K. Raatz is a research nutritionist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND, and an adjunct associate professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.


      L. K. Johnson is a biostatistician, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND.


      T. A. Rosenberger is an associate professor, Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.


      M. J. Picklo is a research physiologist and research leader, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND, and an adjunct associate professor, Department of Chemistry, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.


      W. W. Wolter is the center director and research leader, US Department of Agriculture National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center, Franklin, ME.


      G. S. Burr is a research geneticist, US Department of Agriculture National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center, Franklin, ME.