Advertisement

Limited Percentages of Adults in Washington State Meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Recommended Intakes of Fruits and Vegetables

Published:April 25, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2011.12.005

      Abstract

      Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • World Health Organization
        IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention: Fruits and Vegetables. Vol. 8. IARC Press, Lyon, France2003
        • Hung H.C.
        • Joshipura K.J.
        • Jiang R.
        • et al.
        Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 1577-1584
        • Rolls B.J.
        • Ello-Martin J.A.
        • Tohill B.C.
        What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management?.
        Nutr Rev. 2004; 62: 1-17
        • Healthy People 2000
        National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives.
        US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC1991 (DHHS publication (PHS)91-50213)
        • Heimendinger J.
        • Van Duyn M.S.
        Dietary behavior change: The challenge of recasting the role of fruit and vegetables in the American diet.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 61: 1397S-1401S
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Web site) (Updated November 14, 2011. Accessed March 2, 2011)
      1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005.
        (Dietary Guidelines Web site) (Updated October 21, 2011. Accessed August 30, 2011)
      2. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2010.
        (Dietary Guidelines Web site) (Updated October 21, 2011. Accessed February 21, 2011)
        • Council of American Survey Research Organizations
        Special Report: On the Definition of Response Rates.
        CASRO, Port Jefferson, NY1982
      3. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
        (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Nutrition Assessment Web site) (Accessed June 19, 2011)
        • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
        Technical documentation-GSEL.
        (Nutrition Assessment Web site) (Accessed June 19, 2011)
      4. BRFSS annual survey data and documentation.
        (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Annual Survey Data Web site) (Updated May 16, 2011. Accessed January 19, 2010)
      5. 1990 guidelines.
        (Dietary Guidelines Web site) (Updated October 21, 2011. Accessed February 21, 2011)
        • US Census Bureau
        2007 American community survey 1-year estimates public use microdata sample.
        (American Community Survey Web site) (Accessed October 21, 2008)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults—United States, 2005.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007; 56: 213-217
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        State-specific trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults—United States, 2000-2009.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010; 59: 1125-1130
        • Kamphuis C.B.M.
        • Giskes K.
        • de Bruijn G.
        • Wendel-Vos W.
        • Brug J.
        • van Lenthe F.J.
        Environmental determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among adults: A systematic review.
        Br J Nutr. 2006; 96: 620-635
        • Thompson S.E.
        • Subar A.F.
        Dietary assessment methodology.
        (National Cancer Institute Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Assessing Dietary Intake Web site) (Updated September 29, 2011. Accessed August 23, 2011)
        • Miller T.M.
        • Abdel-Maksoud M.F.
        • Crane L.A.
        • Marcus A.C.
        • Byers T.E.
        Effects of social approval bias on self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption: A randomized controlled trial.
        Nutr J. 2008; 7: 18
        • Groves R.M.
        • Peytcheva E.
        The impact of nonresponse rates on nonresponse bias.
        Public Opin Q. 2008; 72: 167-189
        • Groves R.M.
        Nonresponse rates and nonresponse bias in household surveys.
        Public Opin Q. 2006; 70: 646-675
        • Keeter S.
        • Kennedy C.
        • Dimock M.
        • Best J.
        • Craighill P.
        Gauging the impact of growing nonresponse on estimates from a national RDD telephone survey.
        Public Opin Q. 2006; 70: 759-779

      Biography

      M.L. Ta is an epidemiologist in the Assessment, Policy Development, and Evaluation Unit, Public Health–Seattle and King County, Seattle, WA; at the time of the study, she was an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer assigned to the Washington State Department of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

      Biography

      J. VanEenwyk is the State Epidemiologist for Non-Infectious Conditions, Washington State Department of Health, Olympia

      Biography

      L. Bensley is an epidemiologist, Washington State Department of Health, Olympia