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This Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position was adopted by the House of Delegates Leadership Team on October 18, 1987 and reaffirmed on September 12, 1992; September 6, 1996; June 22, 2000; June 11, 2006; and March 19, 2012. This position is in effect until December 31, 2021. Position papers should not be used to indicate endorsement of products or services. All requests to use portions of the position or republish in its entirety must be directed to the Academy at [email protected] .
Authors: Vesanto Melina, MS, RD (Consultant, Vancouver, Canada); Winston Craig, PhD, MPH, RD (Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI); Susan Levin, MS, RD, CSSD (Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC).
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
FUNDING/SUPPORT There is no funding to disclose.
Reviewers: Hunger and Environmental Nutrition dietetic practice group (Melissa Altman-Traub, MS, RDN, LDN, Community College of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA); Catherine Conway, MS, RDN, CDN, CDE (YAI/National Institute for People with Disabilities, New York, New York); Sharon Denny, MS, RD (Academy Knowledge Center, Chicago, IL); Sarah Picklo Halabu, RDN, LDN, CDE (Academy Publications and Resources, Chicago, IL); D. Enette Larson-Meyer, PhD, RD, CSSD (University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY); Mark E. Rifkin, MS, RD (Academy Policy Initiatives & Advocacy, Washington, DC); Tamara Schryver, PhD, MS, RD (The Schwan Food Company, Minneapolis, MN); Alison Steiber, PhD, RD (Academy Research, International and Scientific Affairs, Chicago, IL); Vegetarian Nutrition dietetic practice group (John Westerdahl, PhD, MPH, RD, CNS, FAND, Bragg Health Foundation, Santa Barbara, CA).
Academy Positions Committee Workgroup: Mary Ellen E. Posthauer, RDN, CD, LD, FAND (chair) (MEP Healthcare Dietary Services, Inc, Evansville, IN); Ainsley Malone, MS, RD, LD, CNSC, FAND, FASPEN (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, New Albany, OH); Joan Sabate, MD, DrPH (content advisor) (Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA).
The authors thank the reviewers for their many constructive comments and suggestions. The reviewers were not asked to endorse this position or the supporting paper.