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- Position of the American Dietetic Association: Promoting and supporting breastfeeding.J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1926-1942
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding. http://www.eatrightpro.org/resources/practice/position-and-practice-papers/practice-papers. Accessed February 2, 2014.
- Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.Pediatrics. 2012; 129: E827-E841
- Mothers' costs of suboptimal breastfeeding: Implications of the maternal disease cost analysis.Breastfeed Med. 2013; 8: 448-449
- The burden of suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: A pediatric cost analysis.Pediatrics. 2010; 125: E1048-E1056
- Cost analysis of maternal disease associated with suboptimal breastfeeding.Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 122: 111-119
World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9241562218/en. Published 2003. Accessed October 11, 2014.
- Host-microbe interactions in the neonatal intestine: Role of human milk oligosaccharides.Adv Nutr. 2012; 3: 450S-455S
- Benefits of donor milk in the feeding of preterm infants.Early Hum Dev. 2013; 89: S3-S6
- Cells in human milk: State of the science.J Hum Lact. 2013; 29: 171-182
- Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions.J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2012; 17: 167-188
- Lactation and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: A population-based study.Am J Med. 2010; 123: 863.e1-863.e6
- Maternal vitamin D supplementation to improve the vitamin D status of breast-fed infants: A randomized controlled trial.Mayo Clin Proceed. 2013; 88: 1378-1387
Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-for-Calcium-and-Vitamin-D.aspx. Published 2011. Accessed October 11, 2014.
- Impact of maternal nutritional status on breast milk quality and infant outcomes: An update on key nutrients.Adv Nutr. 2012; 3: 350-352
- B vitamins in breast milk: Relative importance of maternal status and intake, and effects on infant status and function.Adv Nutr. 2012; 3: 362-369
Horta BL BR, Martines JC, Victora CG. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595230_eng.pdf. Published 2007. Accessed March 14, 2014.
- Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries.Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2007; : 1-186
- Risk factors of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013; 25: 368-387
- Breastfeeding and childhood asthma: Systematic review and meta-analysis.Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179: 1153-1167
- Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: A meta-analysis.Pediatrics. 2011; 128: 103-110
- Breastfeeding and ovarian cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98: 1020-1031
- Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy.Arch Dis Child. 2012; 97: 1019-1026
US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant, and Child Health Objectives. HealthPeople.gov website. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/maternal-infant-and-child-health. Publishesd 2012. Accessed October 11, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/reportcard.htm. Published 2013. Accessed October 11, 2014.
- A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Evidence Report on Breastfeeding in Developed Countries.Breastfeed Med. 2009; 4: S17-S30
- Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother-infant dyad.Pediatr Clin N Am. 2013; 60: 31-48
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/breastfeeding. Published 2011. Accessed October 11, 2014.
- Human milk for preterm infants: Why, what, when and how?.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013; 98: F559-F562
- Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome?.Pediatrics. 2009; 123: e406-e410
- Breastfeeding is negatively affected by prenatal depression and reduces postpartum depression.Psychol Med. 2014; 44: 927-936
- Duration of lactation and risk factors for maternal cardiovascular disease.Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 113: 974-982
- Association between common risk factors and molecular subtypes in breast cancer patients.Breast. 2013; 22: 344-350
- Predictors of continuation of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life.J Hum Lact. 2010; 26: 26-34
- Maternity care practices and breastfeeding experiences of women in different racial and ethnic groups: Pregnancy risk assessment and monitoring system (PRAMS).Matern Child Health J. 2012; 16: 1672-1678
- Breastfeeding concerns at 3 and 7 days postpartum and feeding status at 2 months.Pediatrics. 2013; 132: E865-E875
- Promoting breastfeeding among obese women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus.Curr Diab Rep. 2011; 11: 7-12
- Effects of early breastfeeding on neonatal glucose levels of term infants born to women with gestational diabetes.J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009; 22: 166-169
- The quiet revolution: Breastfeeding transformed with the use of breast pumps.Am J Public Health. 2011; 101: 1356-1359
This Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position was adopted by the House of Delegates Leadership Team on March 16, 1997, and reaffirmed on September 12, 1999; June 6, 2003; May 20, 2007; and March 23, 2012. This position is in effect until December 31, 2019. Requests to use portions of the position or republish in its entirety must be directed to the Academy at [email protected] .
Reviewers: Virginia Carney, MPH, RD, IBCLC, FILCA, FADA (St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN); Public Health Community Nutrition dietetic practice group (DPG) (Phyllis Stell Crowley, MS, RD, IBCLC, Utah Department of Health/WIC, Salt Lake City, UT); Claire Dalidowitz, MS, MA, RD, CD-N (Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Hartford, CT); Sharon Denny, MS, RD (Academy Knowledge Center, Chicago, IL); Women’s Health DPG (Heather Goesch, MPH, RDN, LDN, Heather Goesch Nutrition, Holly Ridge, NC); Pediatric Nutrition DPG (Stephanie Howard, MPH, RDN, LD, IBCLC Saint Luke’s Hospital, Kansas City, MO); Mary Pat Raimondi, MS, RD (Academy Policy Initiatives & Advocacy, Washington, DC).
Academy Positions Committee Workgroup: Denise A. Andersen, MS, RDN, LD, CLC (Chair) (Business Consultant in Private Practice, Mendota Heights, MN); Mindy G. Hermann, MBA, RDN (The Hermann Group, Inc, Mount Kisco, NY); Alena M. Clark, PhD, MPH, RD, CLC (Content Advisor) (University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO).
We thank the reviewers for their many constructive comments and suggestions. The reviewers were not asked to endorse this position or the supporting paper.