The effect of eating speed on energy intake by weight status is unclear.
To examine whether the effect of eating speed on energy intake is the same in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects.
The effect of slow and fast eating speed on meal energy intake was assessed in a randomized crossover design.
Thirty-five normal-weight (aged 33.3±12.5 years; 14 women and 21 men) subjects and 35 overweight/obese (44.1±13.0 years; 22 women and 13 men) subjects were studied on 2 days during lunch in a metabolic kitchen.
The subjects consumed the same meal, ad libitum, but at different speeds during the two eating conditions. The weight and energy content of the food consumed was assessed. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed at specific times using visual analog scales.
Effect of eating speed on ad libitum energy intake, eating rate (energy intake/meal duration), energy density (energy intake per gram of food and water consumed), and satiety were assessed by mixed-model repeated measures analysis.
Meal energy intake was significantly lower in the normal-weight (804.5±438.9 vs 892.6±330.2 kcal; P=0.04) but not the overweight/obese (667.3±304.1 vs 724.8±355.5 kcal; P=0.18) subjects during the slow vs the fast eating condition. Both groups had lower meal energy density (P=0.005 and P=0.001, respectively) and eating rate (P<0.0001 in both groups) during the slow vs the fast eating condition. Both groups reported less hunger (P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively), and the normal-weight subjects reported more fullness (P=0.02) at 60 minutes after the meal began during the slow compared with the fast eating condition. There was no eating speed by weight status interaction for any of the variables.
Eating slowly significantly lowered meal energy intake in the normal-weight but not in the overweight/obese group. It lowered eating rate and energy density in both groups. Eating slowly led to lower hunger ratings in both groups and increased fullness ratings in the normal-weight group at 60 minutes from when the meal began.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000.JAMA. 2002; 288: 1723-1727
- Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010.JAMA. 2012; 307: 491-497
- Secular trends in patterns of self-reported food consumption of adult Americans: NHANES 1971-1975 to NHANES 1999-2002.Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 1215-1223
- Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010; 6: 290-293
- Balancing intake and output: food v. exercise. Why liquid energy results in overconsumption.Proc Nutr Soc. 2011; 70: 162-170
- Rate of eating and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidaemia.J Int Med Res. 2002; 30: 442-444
- Self-reported rate of eating correlates with body mass index in 18-y-old Japanese women.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003; 27: 1405-1410
- Eating fast leads to obesity: Findings based on self-administered questionnaires among middle-aged Japanese men and women.J Epidemiol. 2006; 16: 117-124
- The joint impact on being overweight of self-reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full: Cross-sectional survey.BMJ. 2008; 337: a2002
- Eating fast leads to insulin resistance: Findings in middle-aged Japanese men and women.Prev Med. 2008; 46: 154-159
- Study on food preference and dietary behavior to overweight/obesity in school children and adolescents in Guangzhou: A case-control study.Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2008; 29: 965-969
- Retrospective longitudinal study on the relationship between 8-year weight change and current eating speed.Appetite. 2011; 57: 179-183
- Laboratory and free-living eating rates in young adults reporting to be slow, medium, or fast paced eaters.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011; 19: S101
- Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 1186-1191
- Improvement in chewing activity reduces energy intake in one meal and modulates plasma gut hormone concentrations in obese and lean young Chinese men.Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94: 709-716
- Slowing bite-rate reduces energy intake: An application of the bite counter device.J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111: 1231-1235
- Does prolonged chewing reduce food intake? Fletcherism revisited.Appetite. 2011; 57: 295-298
- Slower eating rate reduces the food intake of men, but not women: Implications for behavioral weight control.Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 2349-2359
- Decelerated and linear eaters: Effect of eating rate on food intake and satiety.Physiol Behav. 2009; 96: 270-275
- Eating style of obese and nonobese males.Psychosom Med. 1980; 42: 529-538
- Bite size, ingestion rate, and meal size in lean and obese women.Appetite. 1993; 21: 131-145
- Altering portion sizes and eating rate to attenuate gorging during a fast food meal: Effects on energy intake.Pediatrics. 2007; 119: 869-875
- Independent effects of palatability and within-meal pauses on intake and appetite ratings in human volunteers.Appetite. 1997; 29: 61-76
- Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal.Appetite. 2013; 60: 180-186
- The effect of texture differences on satiation in 3 pairs of solid foods.Appetite. 2010; 55: 490-497
- Laboratory eating behavior in obesity.Appetite. 2007; 49: 399-404
- American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery medical guidelines for clinical practice for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17 (v): S1-S70
- American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD2010
- Binge eating disorder and obesity.Int J Obes. 2001; 25: S51-S55
- The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger.J Psychosom Res. 1985; 29: 71-83
- A Self-Rating Depression Scale.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1965; 12: 63-70
- The Eating Attitudes Test: An index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa.Psychol Med. 1979; 9: 273-279
- The eating attitudes test: Psychometric features and clinical correlates.Psychol Med. 1982; 12: 871-878
- Practical assessment of body composition.Physician Sport Med. 1985; 13: 76-90
- Applied Body Composition Assessment.Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL1996
- Assessment of habitual physical activity by a seven-day recall in a community survey and controlled experiments.Am J Epidemiol. 1985; 122: 794-804
- Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000; 24: 38-48
- A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women.J Hum Nutr Diet. 2011; 24: 612-615
- A naturalistic study of social influences on meal size among moderately obese and nonobese subjects.Psychosom Med. 1979; 41: 19-27
- Effects of social contexts on overweight and normal-weight children's food intake.Physiol Behav. 2007; 92: 840-846
- Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal-weight women.Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 67: 412-420
- Energy density of foods affects energy intake across multiple levels of fat content in lean and obese women.Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 73: 1010-1018
- The joy of eating mindfully: Chew, chew, chew.Conn Med. 2009; 73: 235
- Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012; 20: 2226-2232
- Eating slowly increases the postprandial response of the anorexigenic gut hormones, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95: 333-337
- Increasing the number of masticatory cycles is associated with reduced appetite and altered postprandial plasma concentrations of gut hormones, insulin and glucose.Br J Nutr. 2013; 110: 384-390
- Oral processing characteristics of solid savory meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.Appetite. 2013; 60: 208-219
- Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake.Appetite. 2011; 56: 25-31
- Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others.Physiol Behav. 2006; 88: 498-505
- The effects of degree of acquaintance, plate size, and sharing on food intake.Appetite. 2009; 52: 595-602
- Treatment of childhood obesity by retraining eating behaviour: Randomised controlled trial.BMJ. 2010; 340: b5388
M. Shah is a professor, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.
D. Rhea is a professor, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.
L. Dart is an associate professor, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.
J. Copeland is a nursing student, Texas A&M University, College Station; at the time of the study, she was a graduate student, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.
B. Adams-Huet is an assistant professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX.
A. James is an exercise physiologist, Cardiology and Interventional Vascular Associates, Dallas, TX; at the time of the study, she was a graduate student, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth.
Published online: January 02, 2014
Accepted: October 28, 2013
Supplementary materials: Podcast available at www.andjrnl.org/content/podcast
STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
FUNDING/SUPPORT This study was funded by Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX.
© 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.