Advertisement

NOTICE: We are experiencing technical issues with Academy members trying to log into the JAND site using Academy member login credentials. We are working to resolve the issue as soon as possible. Alternatively, if you are an Academy member, you can access the JAND site by registering for an Elsevier account and claiming access using the links at the top of the JAND site. Email us at [email protected] for assistance. Thanks for your patience!

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Nutrition Security in Developing Nations: Sustainable Food, Water, and Health

Published:March 20, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.01.025

      Abstract

      It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
        The State of Food Insecurity in the World: Economic Growth is Necessary But Not Sufficient to Accelerate Reduction of Hunger and Malnutrition.
        Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy2012
        • Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
        Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security World Summit on Food Security.
        Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy2009
        • Weingartner L.
        Paper I: The concept of food and nutrition security.
        (In: Klennert K, ed. Achieving food and nutrition security: Actions to meet the global challenge: A training course reader. German Society for International Cooperation website) (Published 2009. Accessed January 29, 2013)
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food insecurity in the United States.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1368-1377
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1449-1460
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 1033-1043
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive school nutrition services.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1738-1749
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: Child and adolescent nutrition assistance programs.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 791-799
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: Promoting and supporting breastfeeding.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1926-1942
        • American Dietetic Association
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: Individual-, family-, school-, and community-based interventions for pediatric overweight.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 925-945
        • United Nations
        Millennium Development Goals Indicators: The official United Nations site for the MDG indicators.
        (Accessed July 2, 2011)
        • Delfin S.
        Global Monitoring Report 2011: Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs Heterogeneity, Gaps, and Challenges.
        The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC2011
        • World Health Organization
        World health statistics 2011.
        (Published 2011. Accessed January 24, 2013)
        • United Nations
        The Millennium Development Goals report 2012.
        (Accessed January 24, 2013)
        • Strang B.
        Investing in the Future: A United Call to Action on Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies: Global Report 2009.
        Canada: Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, Ontario2009
        • United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition
        6th Report on the World Nutrition Situation: Progress in Nutrition.
        United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland2010
        • The World Bank Group
        World development report 2011: Conflict, security and development.
        (Published April 10, 2011. Accessed November 13, 2012)
        • World Health Organization
        Obesity and overweight: Fact sheet no 311.
        (Published May 2012. Accessed November 23, 2012)
        • United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, The World Bank
        UNICEF-WHO-World Bank joint child malnutrition estimates: Levels & trends in child malnutrition.
        (Published 2012. Accessed January 10, 2013)
        • World Health Organization
        Infant and young child feeding, fact sheet number 342.
        (Published July 2010. Accessed January 24, 1013)
        • United Nations Children's Fund
        The State of the World's Children Special Edition: Celebrating 20 Years of the Convention of the Rights of the Child.
        United Nations Children's Fund, New York2009
        • Committee on World Food Security
        Outcome of “round table to review methods used to estimate the number of hungry”.
        (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations website) (Published October 2011. Accessed September 24, 2012)
        • Von Grebmer K.
        • Ringler C.
        • Rosegrant M.
        • et al.
        2012 Global Hunger Index: The Challenge of Hunger: Ensuring Sustainable Food Security under Land Water and Energy Stresses.
        Welt Hunger Hilfe, IFPRI, and Concern World Wide, Bonn, Germany; Washington, DC; and Dublin, Ireland2012
        • International Fund for Agricultural Development
        Rural Poverty Report 2011: New Realities, New Challenges: New Opportunities for Tomorrow's Generation.
        (Published 2011. Accessed October 20, 2012)
        • Bailey R.
        Growing a better future: Food justice in a resource constrained world.
        (Published June 2011. Accessed September 30, 2012)
        • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Fund for Agricultural Development, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Food Programme, The World Bank, World Trade Organization, International Food Policy Research Institute and the United Nations High-Level Task Force
        Price volatility in agricultural markets: Evidence, impact on food security and policy responses.
        (Published June 2, 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Robson M.
        • Röttger A.
        • Shepherd A.
        High food prices—improving the performance of the agricultural sector.
        (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations web site) (Published February 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations Children's Fund
        Tracking progress on child and maternal nutrition: A survival and development priority.
        (Published November 2009. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        The state of food insecurity in the world: Addressing food insecurity in protracted crisis.
        (Published 2010. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund
        WHO child growth standards and the identification of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children: A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nation's Children's Fund.
        (Published 2009. Accessed January 10, 2013)
        • United Nations Children's Fund
        Programming guide: Infant and young child feeding.
        (Published May 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • World Health Organization
        Child growth standards: WHO anthro (version 3.2.2, January 2011) and macros.
        (Accessed January 10, 2013)
        • Black R.
        • Allen L.H.
        • Bhutta Z.A.
        • et al.
        Maternal and child undernutrition: Global and regional exposures and health consequences.
        Lancet. 2008; 371: 243-260
        • World Health Organization
        Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO global database on anaemia.
        (Published 2008. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Christianson A.
        • Howson C.P.
        • Modell B.
        March of Dimes global report on birth defects: The Hidden toll of dying and disabled children. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation.
        (Published 2006. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • World Health Organization
        Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005: WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency.
        (Published 2009. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Brown K.H.
        • Baker S.K.
        Galvanizing action: Conclusions and next steps for mainstreaming zinc interventions in public health programs.
        Food Nutr Bull. 2009; 30: S179-S184
        • Hotz C.
        The potential to improve zinc status through biofortification of staple food crops with zinc.
        Food Nutr Bull. 2009; 30: S174-S178
        • De Benoist B.
        • McLean E.
        Iodine deficiency in 2007: Global progress since 2003.
        Food Nutr Bull. 2008; 29: 195-202
      1. Farming First. Fighting iodine deficiencies in China through fertilizer and irrigation.
        (Published February 3, 2011. Accessed July 30, 2012)
        • Victora C.G.
        • Adair L.
        • Fall C.
        • et al.
        Maternal and child undernutrition: Consequences for adult health and human capital.
        Lancet. 2008; 371: 340-357
        • Jones G.
        • Steketee R.W.
        • Black R.E.
        • et al.
        Child survival II: How many child deaths can we prevent this year?.
        Lancet. 2003; 362: 65-71
        • World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund
        Progress on sanitation and drinking-water: 2010 update.
        (Published 2010. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Pruss-Üsun A.
        • Bos R.
        • Gore F.
        • Bartram J.
        Safer water, better health: Costs, benefits, and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health.
        (World Health Organization website) (Published 2008. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations Children's Fund
        UN launches International Year of Sanitation to address global crisis.
        (UNICEF [press release]) (Published November 21, 2007. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • US Environmental Protection Agency
        What is sustainability?.
        (Accessed October 17, 2012)
        • International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development
        Agriculture at a crossroads: Global report.
        (Published 2009. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations Environmental Programme
        UNEP annual report: Seizing the green opportunity: 2009.
        (Published February 2010. Accessed October 17, 2012)
        • Lundqvist J.
        • de Fraiture C.
        • Molden D.
        Saving water: From field to fork—Curbing losses and wastage in the food chain.
        (Stockholm International Water Institute website) (Published May 2008. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Nellemann C.
        • MacDevette M.
        • Manders T.
        • et al.
        The environmental food crisis: The environment's role in averting future food crisis: A UNEP rapid response assessment.
        (United Nations Environmental Programme website) (Published Feburary 2009. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture
        Water for food, water for life: A comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture.
        (Published 2007. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations
        The Millennium Development Goals report 2010.
        (Published June 15, 2010. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations
        2011 High-level meeting on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication: Programme: plenary meeting.
        (Published September 20, 2011. Accessed October 28, 2012)
        • International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development
        Agriculture at a crossroad synthesis report: A synthesis of the global and sub-global IAASTD reports.
        (Published 2009. Accessed January 19, 2013)
        • Frison E.A.
        • Smith I.F.
        • Johns T.
        • Cherfas J.
        • Eyzaguirre P.B.
        Agricultural biodiversity, nutrition, and health: Making a difference to hunger and nutrition in the developing world.
        Food Nutr Bull. 2006; 27: 167-179
        • Government Office for Science
        The future of food and farming challenges and choices for global sustainability: Final project report.
        (Published 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        Save and grow: A policymaker's guide to the sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production.
        (Published 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Pretty J.N.
        • Noble A.D.
        • Bossio D.
        • et al.
        Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries.
        Environ Sci Technol. 2006; 40: 1114-1119
        • Badgley C.
        • Moghtader J.
        • Quintero E.
        • et al.
        Organic agriculture and the global food supply.
        Renew Agric Food Syst. 2007; 22: 86-108
        • Power A.G.
        Ecosystem services and agriculture: Tradeoffs and synergies.
        Phil Trans R Soc B. 2010; 365: 2959-2971
        • World Resources Institute
        Millennium ecosystem assessment: Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity synthesis.
        (Published 2005. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        The state of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
        (Published 1997. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        The second report on the state of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
        (Published 2010. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations Human Settlements Programme
        Cities and climate change: Global report on human settlements 2011.
        (Published 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        Food prices: From crisis to stability.
        (Published October 16, 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • World Health Organization
        World malaria report 2009.
        (Published 2009. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
        Why gender.
        (Accessed August 27, 2012)
        • Interagency Task Force on Gender and Water (GWTF), United Nations-Water, Interagency Network on Women and Gender Equality
        Gender, water and sanitation: A policy brief.
        (Published June 2006. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • World Bank
        World Development Report 2012 Overview: Gender Equality and Development.
        World Bank, Washington, DC2012
        • World Health Organization
        Active ageing: A policy framework.
        (Published April 2002. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition
        Scaling up nutrition: A framework for action.
        (Reprinted April 2011. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Greenblott K.
        • Nordin K.
        Permaculture design for orphans and vulnerable children programming: Low-cost, sustainable solutions for food and nutrition insecure communities: Technical brief.
        (AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources Project website) (Published January 2012. Accessed January 10, 2013)
        • Iannotti L.
        • Cunningham K.
        • Ruel M.
        International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) discussion paper 00928: Improving diet quality and micronutrient nutrition homestead food production in Bangladesh.
        (International Food Policy Research Institute website) (Published November 2009. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Balarajan Y.
        • Ramakrishnan U.
        • Ozaltin E.
        • Shankar A.H.
        • Subramanian S.
        Anemia in low-income and middle-income countries.
        Lancet. 2011; 378: 2113-2135
        • Lokeshwar M.R.
        • Mehta M.
        • Mehta N.
        • Shelke P.
        • Babar N.
        Prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA): How far have we reached?.
        Indian J Pediatr. 2011; 78: 593-602
        • Stoltzfus R.J.
        Iron interventions for women and children in low-income countries.
        J Nutr. 2011; 141: 756S-762S
        • Milman N.
        Anemia—Still a major health problem in many parts of the world!.
        Ann Hematol. 2011; 90: 369-377
        • Horton S.
        • Shekar M.
        • McDonald C.
        • Mahal A.
        • Brooks J.K.
        Scaling up nutrition: What will it cost?.
        (World Bank website) (Published 2010. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Angeles-Agdeppa I.
        • Saises M.
        • Capanzana M.
        • Juneja L.R.
        • Sakaguchi N.
        Pilot-scale commercialization of iron-fortified rice: Effects on anemia status.
        Food Nutr Bull. 2011; 32: 3-12
        • Hurrell R.
        • Ranum P.
        • De Pee S.
        • et al.
        Revised recommendations for iron fortification of wheat flour and an evaluation of the expected impact of current national wheat flour fortification programs.
        Food Nutr Bull. 2010; 31: S7-S21
        • United Nations Children's Fund
        Infant and young child feeding.
        (Updated May 25, 2012. Accessed January 10, 2013)
        • World Health Organization, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Children's Fund
        Guidelines on HIV and Infant Feeding 2010: Principles and recommendations for infant feeding in the context of HIV and a summary of evidence.
        (World Health Organization website) (Published 2010. Accessed January 18, 2013)
        • Stoltzfus R.J.
        Research needed to strengthen science and programs for the control of iron deficiency and its consequences in young children.
        J Nutr. 2008; 138: 2542-2546

      Linked Article

      • Erratum
        Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and DieteticsVol. 113Issue 12
        • Preview
          In the “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Nutrition Security in Developing Nations: Sustainable Food, Water, and Health,” which appeared in the April 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (pp 581-595), there was an error on page 592. The last bulleted item in the third column erroneously refers to the “Overseas Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics." The correct name of this organization is the “American Overseas Dietetic Association.”
        • Full-Text
        • PDF