From the Academy Position Paper| Volume 112, ISSUE 8, P1255-1277, August 2012

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Food and Nutrition for Older Adults: Promoting Health and Wellness


      It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all Americans aged 60 years and older receive appropriate nutrition care; have access to coordinated, comprehensive food and nutrition services; and receive the benefits of ongoing research to identify the most effective food and nutrition programs, interventions, and therapies. Health, physiologic, and functional changes associated with the aging process can influence nutrition needs and nutrient intake. The practice of nutrition for older adults is no longer limited to those who are frail, malnourished, and ill. The population of adults older than age 60 years includes many individuals who are living healthy, vital lives with a variety of nutrition-related circumstances and environments. Access and availability of wholesome, nutritious food is essential to ensure successful aging and well-being for the rapidly growing, heterogeneous, multiracial, and ethnic population of older adults. To ensure successful aging and minimize the effects of disease and disability, a wide range of flexible dietary recommendations, culturally sensitive food and nutrition services, physical activities, and supportive care tailored to older adults are necessary. National, state, and local strategies that promote access to coordinated food and nutrition services are essential to maintain independence, functional ability, disease management, and quality of life. Those working with older adults must be proactive in demonstrating the value of comprehensive food and nutrition services. To meet the needs of all older adults, registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, must widen their scope of practice to include prevention, treatment, and maintenance of health and quality of life into old age.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1. Older Americans Act.
        (Accessed December 1, 2010)
      2. Health-related quality of life.
        (Accessed August 16, 2011)
        • Jeste D.V.
        • Depp C.A.
        • Vahia I.V.
        Successful cognitive and emotional aging.
        World Psychiatry. 2010; 9: 78-84
      3. 10 leading causes of death by age group, United States—2009.
        (Accessed June 28, 2012)
      4. Helping people to live long and productive lives and enjoy a good quality of life at a glance.
        (Accessed August 16, 2011)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Early release of selected estimates based on data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey.
        (Accessed February 12, 2011)
      5. Profile of Older Americans 2011.
        (Accessed March 20, 2012)
      6. Older Americans 2010 key indicators of well-being.
        (Accessed July 1, 2010)
        • Barzilai N.
        • Gabriely I.
        Genetic studies reveal the role of the endocrine and metabolic systems in aging.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95: 4493-4500
        • Lescai F.
        • Marchengiani F.
        • Franceschi C.
        PON1 is a longevity gene: Results of a meta-analysis.
        Ageing Res Rev. 2009; 8: 277-284
        • Caliebe A.
        • Kleindorp R.
        • Blanche H.
        • et al.
        No or only population-specific effect on PON1 on human longevity: A comprehensive meta-analysis.
        Ageing Res Rev. 2010; 9: 2238-2244
        (Accessed March 7, 2011)
        • National Institute on Aging
        Health disparities strategic plan: Fiscal years 2009-2013.
        (Accessed May 5, 2011)
      8. What are effective intervention strategies that have been identified to assist the food insecure in meeting their nutritional needs?.
        (Accessed March 6, 2012)
        • Short K.
        The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2010 Current Population Reports.
        US Census Bureau, Washington, DC2011
        • World Health Organization
        Poverty and health.
        (Accessed May 12, 2011)
      9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food insecurity in the United States.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1368-1377
      10. Food security in the United States: Key statistics and graphics prevalence of food insecurity.
        (Accessed December 12, 2011)
        • Ziliak J.
        • Gunderson C.
        Senior hunger in the United States: Differences across states and rural and urban area.
        (Accessed September 1, 2011)
        • Amarantos E.
        • Martinez A.
        • Dwyer J.
        Nutrition and quality of life in older adults.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56A: 54-64
        • Anderson A.L.
        • Harris T.B.
        • Tylavsky F.A.
        • et al.
        Dietary patterns and survival in older adults.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111: 84-91
      11. Dietary Guideance DRI Tables.
        (Accessed May 1, 2011)
      12. Tufts University nutrition scientists unveil MyPlate for older adults.
        (Accessed January 16, 2012)
        • Bernstein M.A.
        • Luggen A.S.
        Nutrition for Older Adults.
        Jones & Bartlett, Sudbury, MA2010
        • Roberts S.B.
        • Dallal G.E.
        Energy requirements and aging.
        Public Health Nutr. 2005; 8: 1028-1036
        • Evans W.J.
        Protein nutrition, exercise and aging.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23: 601S-609S
        • Evans W.
        Exercise and nutritonal needs of elderly people effects on muscle and bone.
        Gerontology. 1998; 15: 15-24
        • US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Information Center
        Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, vitamins.
        (Accessed May 31, 2011)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients- United States, 1971-2000.
        MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53: 80-82
        • Krebs-Smith S.M.
        • Guenther P.M.
        • Subar A.
        • Kirkpatrick S.I.
        • Dodd K.W.
        Americans do not meet federal dietary recommendations.
        J Nutr. 2010; 140: 1832-1838
        • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
        Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2005
        • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
        Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids (Macronutrients).
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2005
        • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board
        Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2005
        • Chernoff R.
        Protein and older adults.
        J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23: 627s-630s
        • Paddon-Jones D.
        • Short K.R.
        • Campbell W.W.
        • et al.
        The role of dietary protein in sarcopenia and aging.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 1562s-1566s
        • Campbell W.W.
        • Johnson C.A.
        • McCabe G.P.
        • Carnell N.S.
        Dietary protein requirements of younger and older adults.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 1322-1329
        • Millward D.J.
        Sufficient protein for our elders?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 1187-1188
      13. American Dietetic Association Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty, advanced) in sports dietetics.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 544-552.e30
        • Houston D.K.
        • Nicklas B.J.
        • Ding J.
        • et al.
        Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in older community-dwelling adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 150-155
        • Fulgoni V.L.
        Current protein intake in America: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 1554s-1557s
        • Symons T.B.
        • Sheffield-Moore M.
        • Mamerow M.M.
        • Wolfe R.R.
        • Paddon-Jones D.
        The anabolic response to resistance exercise and a protein-rich meal is not diminished by age.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2011; 15: 376-381
        • Symons T.
        • Schutzler S.
        • Cocke T.
        • Chinkes D.
        • Wolfe R.
        • Paddon-Jones D.
        Aging does not impair the anabolic response to a protein-rich meal.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: 451-456
        • Symons T.
        • Sheffield-Moore M.
        • Wolfe R.
        • Paddon-Jones D.
        A moderate serving of high-quality protein maximally stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in young and elderly subjects.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1582-1586
        • Paddon-Jones D.
        • Rasmussen B.
        Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009; 12: 86-90
        • US Department of Agriculture
        (Accessed March 29, 2012)
        • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine
        Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2011 (Accessed March 29, 2012)
      14. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General.
        US Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Surgeon General, Rockville, MD2004
        • Follin S.
        • Hansen L.
        Current approaches to the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
        Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003; 60: 883-901
        • Kitchin B.
        • Morgan S.
        Nutritional considerations in osteoporosis.
        Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2003; 15: 476-480
        • Nieves J.W.
        Calcium, vitamin D, and nutrition in elderly adults.
        Clin Geriatr Med. 2003; 19: 321-335
        • Allen L.
        How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 712s-716s
        • Green R.
        Is it the time for vitamin B-12 fortification?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 712s-716s
      15. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrient supplementation.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 2073-2085
        • Ray A.L.
        • Semba R.D.
        • Walston J.
        • et al.
        Low serum selenium and total carotenoids predict mortality among older women living in the community: The Women's Health and Aging Studies.
        J Nutr. 2006; 136: 172-176
        • Nicklett E.J.
        • Szanton S.
        • Sun K.
        • et al.
        Neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in older community-dwelling women.
        J Nutr. 2011; 141: 284-289
        • Rhone M.
        • Basu A.
        Phytochemicals and age-related eye diseases.
        Nutr Rev. 2008; 66: 465-472
        • Carpentier S.
        • Knaus M.
        • Suh M.
        Associations between lutein, zeaxanthin, and age-related macular degeneration: An overview.
        Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009; 49: 313-326
      16. Food and nutrition for older adults promoting health and wellness evidence analysis project.
        (Accessed May 2, 2012)
        • Devore E.E.
        • Kang J.H.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Grodstein F.
        Total antioxidant capacity of diet in relation to cognitive function.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 1157-1164
        • Kamphuis P.J.
        • Scheltens P.
        Can nutrients prevent or delay onset of Alzheimer's disease?.
        J Alzheimers Dis. 2010; 20: 765-775
        • Lindsay D.G.
        • Astley S.B.
        European research of the fucntional effects of dietary antioxidants- EUROFEDA.
        Mol Aspects Med. 2002; 23: 1-38
        • Harrington M.
        • Grodstein F.
        Antioxidant vitamins and Alzheimer's disease: A review of the epidemiological literature.
        Aging Health. 2007; 3: 23-32
        • Gillette Guyonnet S.
        • Abellan G.
        • Van Kan S.
        • et al.
        IANA task force on nutrition and cognitive decline with aging.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2007; 11: 132-152
      17. Food and nutrition for older adults promoting health and wellness recommendations.
        (Accessed May 2, 2012)
        • Bachman J.
        • Reedy J.
        • Subar A.
        • Krebs-Smith S.
        Sources of food group intakes among the US population, 2001-2002.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 804-814
        • Tangney C.C.
        • Kwasny M.J.
        • Li H.
        • Wilson R.S.
        • Evans D.A.
        • Morris M.C.
        Adherence to a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern and cognitive decline in a community population.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 93: 601-607
        • Lichtenstein A.H.
        • Rasmussen H.
        • Winifred Y.
        • Epstein S.
        • Russell R.
        Modified MyPyramid for older adults.
        J Nutr. 2008; 138: 5-11
        • Chobanian A.V.
        • Bakris G.L.
        • Black H.R.
        • et al.
        The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report.
        JAMA. 2003; 289: 2560-2572
        • Knoops K.
        • de Groot L.
        • Kromhout D.
        • et al.
        Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women.
        JAMA. 2004; 292: 1433-1439
        • Psaltopoulou T.
        • Naska A.
        • Orfanos P.
        • Trichopoulos D.
        • Mountokalakis T.
        • Trichopoulou A.
        Olive oil, the Mediterranean diet, and arterial blood pressure: The Greek European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 1012-1018
        • US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services
        Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010.
        (Accessed February 2, 2011)
      18. In adults, what is the relationship between the intake of vegetables and fruits, not including juice, and selected health outcomes?.
        (Accessed August 12, 2011)
        • Pomerleau J.
        • Lock K.
        • Knai C.
        • McKee M.
        Interventions designed to increase fruit and vegetable intake can be effective: A systematic review of the literature.
        J. Nutr. 2005; 135: 2486-2495
      19. American Dietetic Association supports Institute of Medicine recommendations for decreasing sodium intake [press release].
        (Accessed March 15, 2011)
        • Henney J.E.
        • Taylor C.L.
        • Boon C.S.
        Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States.
        (Accessed March 15, 2011)
      20. Your guide to lowering your blood pressure with DASH.
        (Accessed March 15, 2011)
        • Troyer J.
        • Racine E.
        • Ngugi G.
        • McAuley W.
        The effect of home-delivered Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) meals on the diets of older adults with cardiovascular disease.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 91: 1204-1212
        • Artinian N.T.
        • Fletcher G.F.
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • et al.
        Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2010; 122: 406-411
        • Knowler W.C.
        • Fowler S.E.
        • Hamman R.F.
        • et al.
        10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.
        Lancet. 2009; 14: 1677-1686
        • Bernstein M.
        • Tucker K.
        • Ryan N.
        • et al.
        Higher dietary variety is associated with better nutritional status in frail elderly people.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 1096-1104
      21. QuickStats: Percentage of adults aged greater than or equal to 65 years limited in activities of daily living (ADLs), by poverty ratio and number of limitations—National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2003-2007.
        (Accessed October 23, 2011)
      22. Pfizer Facts.
        (Accessed March 22, 2011)
        • Baumgartner R.
        • Wayne S.
        • Walters D.
        • Janssen I.
        • Gallagher D.
        • Morley J.
        Sarcopenic obesity predicts instrumental activities of daily living disability in the elderly.
        Obes Res. 2004; 12: 1995-2004
        • Silver H.
        • Wellman N.
        Nutrition education may reduce burden in family caregivers of older adults.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2002; 34: S53-S58
        • Wernette C.M.
        • White B.D.
        • Zizza C.A.
        Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111: 864-873
        • Jurschik P.
        • Torres J.
        • Sola R.
        • Nuin C.
        • Botigue T.
        • Lavedan A.
        High rates of malnutrition in older adults receiving different levels of health care in Lleida, Catalonia: An assessment of contributory factors.
        J Nutr Elder. 2010; 29: 410-422
        • Shatenstein B.
        Impact of health conditions on food intakes among older adults.
        J Nutr Elder. 2008; 27: 333-361
        • Hollis J.
        • Henry C.
        Dietary variety and its effect on food intake of elder adults.
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007; 20: 345-351
      23. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Individualized nutrition approaches for older adults in health care communities.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1549-1553
        • Sebastian R.
        • Cleveland L.
        • Goldman J.
        • Moshfegh A.
        Older adults who use vitamin/mineral supplements differ from nonusers in nutrient intake adequacy and dietary attitudes.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 1322-1332
        • Nahin R.L.
        • Pecha M.
        • Welmerink D.B.
        • et al.
        Concomitant use of prescription drugs and dietary supplements in ambulatory elderly people.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009; 57: 1197-1205
        • Miller S.
        • Wolfe R.
        The danger of weight loss in the elderly.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2008; 12: 487-491
        • Berger M.
        • Doherty T.
        Sarcopenia: Prevalence, mechanisms and functional consequences.
        Interdiscip Top Gerontol. 2010; 37: 94-114
        • Kim J.
        • Wilson J.
        • Lee S.
        Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: Roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants.
        J Nutr Biochem. 2010; 21: 1-13
        • Zamboni M.
        • Mazzali G.
        • Fantin F.
        • Rossi A.
        • Di Francesco V.
        Sarcopenic obesity: A new category of obesity in the elderly.
        Nutr Metab Cardiovas Dis. 2008; 18: 388-395
        • Houston D.K.
        • Nicklas B.J.
        • Zizza C.A.
        Weighty concerns: The growing prevalance of obesity among older adults.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1886-1895
        • Stenholm S.
        • Harris T.
        • Rantanen T.
        • Visser M.
        • Kritchevsky S.
        • Ferrucci L.
        Sarcopenic obesity definition, etiology and consequences.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008; 11: 693-700
        • Rolland Y.
        • Lauwers-Cances V.
        • Cristini C.
        • et al.
        Difficulties with physical function associated with obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic-obesity in community-dwelling elderly women: The EPIDOS (EPIDemiologie de l'OSteoporose) Study.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 1895-1900
        • Stenholm S.
        • Alley D.
        • Bandinelli S.
        • et al.
        The effect of obesity combined with low muscle strength on decline in mobility in older persons: Results from the InCHIANTI study.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2009; 33: 635-644
        • Stephen W.
        • Janssen I.
        Sarcopenic-obesity and cardiovascular disease risk in the elderly.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2009; 13: 460-466
        • Zamboni M.
        • Mazzali G.
        • Zoico E.
        • et al.
        Health consequences of obesity in the elderly: A review of four unresolved questions.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2005; 29: 1011-1029
        • Vincent H.
        • Vincent K.
        • Lamb K.
        Obesity and mobility disability in the older adult.
        Obesity Rev. 2010; 11: 568-579
        • Donini L.M.
        • Savina C.
        • Gennaro E.
        • et al.
        A systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between obesity and mortality in the elderly.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2012; 16: 80-98
        • Cohen-Mansfield J.
        • Rotem P.
        Is there a reversal in the effect of obesity on mortality in old age?.
        J Aging Res. 2011; 2011: 765071
      24. Obesity in older adults: Technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 923-934
        • Villareal D.
        • Banks M.
        • Sinacore D.
        • Siener C.
        • Klein S.
        Effect of weight loss and exercise on frailty in obese older adults.
        Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 860-866
        • Rivlin R.
        Keeping the young-elderly healthy: Is it too late to improve our health through nutrition?.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: 1572s-1576s
        • Evans W.
        • Cyr-Campbell D.
        Nutrition, exercise, and healthy aging.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1997; 97: 632-638
        • Boire Y.
        Physiopathological mechanisms of sarcopenia.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2009; 13: 717-723
        • Chaput J.
        • Lord C.
        • Coutier M.
        • et al.
        Relationship between antioxidant intakes and class l sarcopenia in elderly men and women.
        J Nutr Healthy Aging. 2007; 11: 363-369
      25. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee report, 2008.
        (Accessed March 15, 2011)
        • Chodzko-Zajki W.
        • Proctor D.
        • Fiatarone-Singh M.
        • et al.
        American College of Sports Medicine position stand.
        Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2009; 41: 1510-1530
        • Tourlouki E.
        • Matalas A.
        • Panagiotakos D.B.
        Dietary habits and cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged and elderly populations: A review of evidence.
        Clin Interven Aging. 2009; 4: 319-330
        • Kirang K.
        • Frongillo E.
        Participation in food assistance programs modifies the relation of food insercurity with weight and depression in elders.
        J Nutr. 2007; 137: 1005-1010
      26. Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010; 42: 72-82
      27. Nutrition Services (OAA Title III C).
        (Accessed August 6, 2011)
      28. Aging integrated database.
        (Accessed March 5, 2011)
        • Colello K.
        Older Americans Act: Title III Nutrition Services Program.
        (Accessed December 28, 2010)
        • Napili A.
        • Colello K.
        Congressional Research Service: Older Americans Act: Funding.
        2010 (Accessed December 28, 2010)
      29. Nutrition assistance programs.
        (Accessed December 2, 2010)
      30. Seniors farmers market nutrition program.
        (Accessed December 2, 2010)
        • Landers P.
        The Food Stamp Program: History, nutrition education, and impact.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 1945-1951
      31. Nutrition and evaluation making America stronger: A profile of the Food Stamp Program.
        (Accessed December 2, 2010)
      32. Deficit Reduction Act of 2005.
        (Accessed December 1, 2010)
        • Jarratt J.
        • Mahaffie J.B.
        Trends affecting the dietetics profession and the American Dietetic Association.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 1821-1839
        • Mara C.M.
        • Olson L.K.
        Handbook of Long Term Care Administration and Policy.
        CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL2008
      33. Care coordination.
        (Accessed May 1, 2011)
        • Counsell S.R.
        • Callahan C.M.
        • Buttar A.B.
        • Clark D.O.
        • Frank K.I.
        Geriatric Resources for Assessment and Care of Elders (GRACE): A new model of primary care for low-income seniors.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006; 54: 1136-1141
      34. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Program of All Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE).
        (Accessed March 1, 2011)
        • Leff B.R.L.
        • Frick K.D.
        • Scharfstein D.O.
        • et al.
        Guided care and the cost of complex healthcare: A preliminary report.
        Am J Managed Care. 2009; 15: 555-559
      35. Medical home.
        (Accessed March 1, 2011)
      36. Accountable care organizations: A new model in health care reform.
        (Accessed March 1, 2011)
        • Coleman E.A.
        • Boult C.E.
        Improving the quality of transitional care for persons with complex care needs.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007; 51: 556-557
        • Ammerman A.
        • Pignone M.
        • Fernandez L.
        • et al.
        Counseling to Promote a Healthy Diet.
        Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD2002
      37. General Comparisons of DSMT benefits and MNT medicare benefits.
        (Accessed May 20, 2011)
      38. Medical nutrition therapy.
        (Accessed December 5, 2010)
      39. Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Home care—Opportunities for food and nutrition professionals.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1092-1100
        • Chaffrey C.
        • Sengupta M.
        • Moss A.
        • Harris-Kogetin L.
        • Valverde R.
        Home health care and discharged hospice care patients: US 2000 and 2007.
        (Accessed April 27, 2011)
      40. Fast stats nursing home care.
        (Accessed February 18, 2011)
      41. Unintended weight loss in older adults—MNT evidence-based practice guidelines.
        (Accessed December 1, 2010)
      42. Assisted living facts.
        (Accessed December 26, 2010)
        • Chao S.Y.
        • Dwyer J.T.
        • Houser R.
        • Tennstedt S.
        • Jacques P.
        What food and nutrition services should be regulated in assisted-living facilities for older adults?.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1048-1057
      43. Nursing home compare.
        (Accessed December 26, 2010)
        • Bueche J.P.
        • Charney P.
        • Pavlinac J.
        • Skipper A.
        • Thompson E.
        The Nutrition Care and Process Model-Part 1.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; : 1113-1117
      44. Health Community Public Policy Priority Areas.
        2010 (Accessed December 26, 2010)