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Fermentable Fibers Do Not Affect Satiety or Food Intake by Women Who Do Not Practice Restrained Eating

      Abstract

      Background

      Fiber is thought to enhance satiety, although not all fibers are equally effective. Colonic fermentation may influence satiety and food intake.

      Objective

      To test the satiating properties of four isolated fibers added to chocolate crisp bars.

      Design

      Within-subject preload design with repeated measures. Each participant completed five conditions, presented in random order.

      Subjects

      Participants were 22 adult women who do not practice restrained eating (body mass index 18 to 29).

      Intervention

      The experimental conditions were four fiber treatments: 10 g oligofructose, inulin, soluble corn fiber, or resistant wheat starch in chocolate crisp bars. A no-added-fiber bar was evaluated as the control. The night before each treatment, participants consumed a dinner bar containing 10 g of the same fiber given the next morning.

      Main outcome measures

      Repeated ratings of feelings related to hunger and fullness at the lunch meal were the main measures. Secondary outcomes included breath hydrogen and methane, gastrointestinal symptoms, energy consumed at an ad libitum lunch, and energy from 24-hour dietary recall.

      Statistical analyses performed

      Mixed-effect linear models with random intercept for participants to model within-subject correlation.

      Results

      All treatments were well tolerated. No differences were found in subjective satiety during the morning or food intake at lunch or over 24 hours. The oligofructose bar produced the greatest increase in breath hydrogen, and the most bloating and flatulence symptoms.

      Conclusions

      Functional fibers incorporated into chocolate bars at high fiber doses produce greater gastrointestinal symptoms than control, but do not alter satiety, hunger, or food intake compared with control in the short term.

      Keywords

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      Biography

      M. Karalus is a graduate research assistant with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.

      Biography

      M. Clark is a graduate research assistant with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.

      Biography

      Z. Vickers is a professor with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.

      Biography

      J. Slavin is a professor with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.

      Biography

      M. Kuyama is an undergraduate research assistant with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul.

      Biography

      K. A. Greaves is principal nutrition and information scientist, Nutrition and Research Department, Kellogg Company, Battle Creek, MI.

      Biography

      W. Thomas is an associate professor, Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.