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Dietary Reference Intakes

The New Basis for Recommendations for Calcium and Related Nutrients, B Vitamins, and Choline
  • ALLISON A. YATES
    Affiliations
    A. A. Yates (corresponding author) is the director of and S.A. Schlicker and C. W. Suitor are senior staff officers with the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418, USA
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  • SANDRA A. SCHLICKER
    Affiliations
    A. A. Yates (corresponding author) is the director of and S.A. Schlicker and C. W. Suitor are senior staff officers with the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • CAROL W. SUITOR
    Affiliations
    A. A. Yates (corresponding author) is the director of and S.A. Schlicker and C. W. Suitor are senior staff officers with the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20418, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI activity is a comprehensive effort undertaken to include current concepts about the role of nutrients and food components in long-term health, going beyond deficiency diseases. The DRIs consist of 4 reference intakes: the RDA, which is to be used as a goal for the individual; the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which is given to assist in advising individuals what levels of intake may result in adverse effects if habitually exceeded; the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the intake level at which the data indicate that the needs for 50% of those consuming it will not be met; and the Adequate Intake (AI), a level judged by the experts developing the reference intakes to meet the needs of all individuals in a group, but which is based on much less data and substantially more judgment than that used in establishing an EAR and subsequently the RDA. When an RDA cannot be set, an AI is given. Both are to be used as goals for an individual. Two reports have been issued providing DRIs for nutrients and food components reviewed to date: these include calcium and its related nutrients: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride; and most recently, folate, the B vitamins, and choline. The approaches used to determine the DRIs, the reference values themselves, and the plans for future nutrients and food components are discussed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98: 699–706.
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